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August 18, 2009

# Will the Big Crunch follow the Big Bang?

Posted: 08:57 AM ET

The Big Crunch may sound like a slogan for crackers or potato chips, but it’s actually an astronomical theory with a gloomy twist.

We’ve all heard of the Big Bang, a widely accepted theory that proposes the entire universe began from a single point about 13.7 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

But will it expand forever? Or could it stop and reverse that process?

One possible fate of the universe is the Big Crunch, the idea that the cosmos could one day begin contracting and eventually collapse back on itself or return to a single point.

If it ever happens, this anti-Big Bang would take place so far in the future that Earth might even not exist anymore, according to experts writing for Cornell University’s Curious About Astronomy Web site.

But the experts also took a stab at what a contracting universe could look like to an observer billions of years into the future.

“As the present-day observable universe started to get really small, the observer would most likely see some of the things that happened in the early universe happen in reverse. Most notably, the temperature of the universe would eventually get so high that you could no longer have stable atoms, in which case the hypothetical observer wouldn't be able to hold himself together.”

Yikes. But fear not. It turns the expansion of the universe has been accelerating rather than slowing.

Astronomers believe that’s caused by a mysterious dark energy pulling galaxies apart, according to NASA.

“Dark energy is this idea that not only is the universe expanding, dark energy is actually making that expansion happen even faster,” said Marla Geha, as assistant professor of astronomy at Yale University. “The dark energy will actually continue the expansion of the universe forever, so there probably will not be a Big Crunch if we have the numbers right.”

But the continuous expansion would have other consequences. Over tens of billions of years, the galaxies that we see around us would get farther and farther away, making the universe more of a lonely place, Geha said.

Posted by: ,
Filed under: Astronomy • NASA • Space

Babaelf   August 18th, 2009 11:47 am ET

The moment Creation appeared, the entire cosmos became automatically goal-directed – designed for the sole purpose of evolving self-conscious and eventually God-Self-conscious life. This self-evident fact is missed by scientists, creationists, Darwinists and proponents of intelligent design in considering the origins of the universe and human life.
The Universe naturally expands and collapses after billions of years in what is called Maha-pralaya, Maha meaning 'great' and pralaya meaning 'collapse.' It then rests in the vacuum state for billions of years before expanding again, and after so many billions of years conscious organisms again form which will lead again the evolution of consciousness in the seven worlds of stone, plant, insect, worm, bird, animal and finally human form again appears on some earth as the shock point of the creation.
The expansion and contraction of the universe are like the clapping of hands, pulling them apart and clapping over and over. This is how the Universe works, simplistically put.
There are also mini-pralayas on earth such as at the time of Noah. The greatest spiritual Masters predict that the earth goes through such a mini-pralaya every 13+ thousand years and that we are due for one in the next 60 or so years which could wipe-out 3/4 of humanity, cleansing the earth's auric field and introducing a new age of spiritualized life on earth in the remaining remnant. Babaelf

Fredrick Schermer   August 18th, 2009 12:12 pm ET

I am the author of 'In Search of a Cyclops' and what is interesting about the first stages of our universe is that it occurred in darkness. Our looking back based on the matter we can see contains therefore the possibility that it is tricking us, because the very first moments are unknownable without having scientific precision. There are for instance two models available with the exact same scientific information we have today: the universe coming out of a pinpoint in time and space (Big Bang) or the universe coming out of a truly much larger starting area (also Big Bang, but with so-called Empty Nest at center). Even the calculations that our universe is expanding at an accelerating rate may be biased because the original position from which the universe came about is not precisely known. Because, if matter started by coming out of an area the size of a billion light years (leaving dark matter behind at the center), then the universe would still be the age we think it is, but the expansion rate would be of a different magnitude. The gap we cannot know about scientifically is simply that non-lit up area before our universe became visible. It could be the size of a pinhead, it could be the size of our solar system, it could be the size of ten galaxies combined, or even larger. Without light, we cannot measure the original area from which our universe was born, and dark matter appears to indicate there was at least such an area. The crunch can then also not be known with certainty, since with not having the exact information to calculate the exact acceleration rate, the universe may actually be expanding at a normal non-accelerating rate. If that is the case, then the crunch is out.

Tim Thompson   August 18th, 2009 12:26 pm ET

It's one thing to "believe", but quite another thing to "know". Whether the universe will eventually crunch or not, even whether it banged or not, are now, and will forever remain, unknown. Big Bang cosmology is a convolution of knowledge & interpretation, a union of science and philosophy, which is certainly enlightening, whether or not it counts as knowledge. But one thing for sure is that the observations made by the world's increasingly larger telescopes certainly counts as knowledge, and we will learn a great deal more than we expect to learn, once they get to work exploring the universe.

CyclePro   August 18th, 2009 12:28 pm ET

While Babaelf's comment is interesting, there may actually some real evidence/observations to back it up. Please review Steve Puetz's new book "The Unified Cycle Theory" (UCT) where in one chapter he describes the timings of giga-year cycles (billions of years), which include the timeframes containing sequences of big-bang followed by big-collapse, followed by another big-bang, and so on. The UCT is a fractal cycle theory that relates predictable repeating patterns of events in timeframes from sub-seconds to years, to centuries, to eons, and outward beyond giga-years. Indeed, as Babaelf said "...This is how the Universe works, simplistically put..."

OldMom   August 18th, 2009 12:28 pm ET

WOW Babaelf, you seem to know everything! So tell us now – will we get health care reform or not? And will it happen within the next billion years?

Frank R. Tangherlini   August 18th, 2009 12:50 pm ET

For completeness, I believe one should also ask,""Did the Big Bang follow a Big Crunch, so that in fact the Universe is cyclic? " If cyclic, then the Universe will not accelerate indefinitely, and there will be a Big Crunch, and indeed an infinite sequence of Big Crunches and Big Bangs. But if this is so, then the present apparent acceleration cannot be attributed to a cosmological term, and hence one of the following would be true: a) the acceleration is due to what is called, "quintessence" for which, alas, no generally accepted model exists, nor indeed why it should exist, b) the universe is not really accelerating, but one is dealing with some as yet unexplained astrophysical phenomena, c) something is wrong with general relativistic cosmology. Hopefully, the new generation of very large telescopes will help in ascertaining what is the case.

Stu   August 18th, 2009 12:52 pm ET

OK, so the Universe is expanding, everything is moving away like ripples on a pond. So where is the void in the center as all matter moves out away from all other matter? It doesn't make sense. I had a personal theory for many years which I finally heard Stephen Hawking state. The Big Band never ended. Once it started, it continued on and on and on, creating new matter to expand out into the reaches of the universe. So does this mean that the creation of matter started 13.7 billion years ago? I doubt it. All it means is that we can see objects no older than 13.7 billion years old. Can we see the boundaries of matter as it moves into the void of the universe? Nope. I think the literature is faulted by the limits of our observations. Just wait. This new generation of space telescopes will soon tell us that the universe is 15, 17, then 20 billion years old, when the reality is that it is much older than that, if there is an age that can be slapped on it. The current matter is moving away from the central point. So, as mentioned above, one would think that in 100 billion years, what we now see in the heavens will be replaced by a void as all the matter moves away from the current location. But with constant creation of matter, that will never happen, just as it has not happened for an unmeasurable amount of time in the past.

Babelf: I think there is enough evidence collected now to prove that the universe will never collapse back upon itself. That theory has pretty much been abandoned by all serious scholars of the cosmos.

Rambling thoughts

The Dude   August 18th, 2009 12:53 pm ET

Babaelf,

Of course, like, you forgot to mention all that is just your ~OPINION~ man...

Now excuse me, I just gonna' go find a cash station.

Raymond   August 18th, 2009 12:53 pm ET

Babaelf...your comments are unfounded, non-scientific, gibberish. Please produce one iota of “provable” fact. Your statement of “self-evident fact” is complete nonsense! Your entire statement, while interspersed with tiny bits of acceptable knowledge, is simply not reasonable to the scientific world. We need to deal in substantiation, not blind wishful thinking ‘faith’. SHOW ME THE MONEY!

babaganoosh   August 18th, 2009 12:53 pm ET

A mini-pralaya every 13,000+ years, give or take 60 years, huh?
You lost any credibility you had there Raj. There's an 0.46% chance you know what you are talking about....................

really?   August 18th, 2009 12:54 pm ET

Babaelf,

At no time in your argument do you even approach what might be considered a rational thought. I award you no points and may God have mercy on your soul.

Sincerely,

Jesus

Klutch   August 18th, 2009 12:56 pm ET

wow babaelf. cool story bro. lol

Don P   August 18th, 2009 12:57 pm ET

ok.. when does the " One Ring to rule them all " come into play?

Bruce   August 18th, 2009 1:01 pm ET

Are you nuts?

maxwell   August 18th, 2009 1:01 pm ET

Now that's great satire, Babaelf...excellent! We should all be able to express anti-scientific sarcasm this brilliantly.

Conservative Independent   August 18th, 2009 1:10 pm ET

Not quite sure about Babaelf's comment. Wondering if God will "crunch" the universe when the time for His final judgement comes. He will be ushering in a new heaven and earth. I guess if He used the Big Bang He could use the Big Crunch.

Isn't it great that God is even over science!

JL   August 18th, 2009 1:26 pm ET

Babaelf,
Too bad there will be no "great cleansing" of humanity by anything supernatural. There is no God. And the "greatest spiritual Masters" were just men who believed in a higher power thinking that they knew everything about everything, which, they didn't.
Stop being brainwashed by religion and accept that we'll never know how the universe began and we'll never know how it'll end, as our species will be long extinct by that point.

David   August 18th, 2009 1:26 pm ET

How fascinating that I found so many of these theories in the Islamic Holy book, the Quran:

Big Bang and expansion of the Universe:
(chapter 21(The prophets), verse 30)

**[30] Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?

In chapter 51, verse 47:

**[47] With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof.

In chapter 21 again (verse 104) talks about the crunch:

**[104] And (remember) the Day when We shall roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books. As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it. (It is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it.

Impressive, isn't it!

Joe   August 18th, 2009 1:37 pm ET

There are many theories and hypothesis related to the Universe. The Big Crunch is one of them, however, it is often paired with the idea that it will lead to another Big Bang. This is called the Big Bounce. This article describes the Big Crunch as "gloomy" but when paired with the Big Bounce, I find it preferable to the continuous expansion of the Universe.

The current hypothesis is that if continuous expansion occurred, it would lead to heat death where no life could be sustained anywhere in the universe. A cold lonely place indeed (as the article states).

Psychologically, the Big Bounce is reminiscent of rebirth which is a much more comforting idea.

Brandon   August 18th, 2009 1:41 pm ET

Very interesting stuff. When you think about it all it really makes you wonder. Oh and as for Babaelf's comment on the story, you have the right to believe what you want and state your beliefs but honestly noone really knows what will happen and you have no evidence to back up any of your beliefs or claims because they aren't based on rationality. So, let's not have a irrational discussion on a rational topic. *) Thanks

HaHa   August 18th, 2009 1:53 pm ET

Did anyone else find it amusing that the article said the earth "might" not exist anymore? I think it goes without saying that by the time the big crunch happens (if it does), the Earth will be trillions of years gone.

justaregularidiot   August 18th, 2009 1:56 pm ET

So, we see light traveling towards us, light that started its journey 13.7 bill ago. How far past us will it go? will it lose energy and slow? When? If not how far will it go and what's there? Finally what about the rest of the light that started from the same places 13.7 bill ago, specifically the light that began its journey in the opposite direction? Where's that going and what's in that direction. At this point we can't see it because the light is moving away from us, but what about the light that went up and down (relative to the light we see)? Can we see that and what's up or down there? If we could travel around the periphery of the 13.7 bill "globe", looking back; would we see the beginning of time/light?

David   August 18th, 2009 1:58 pm ET

The new realm which is coming to our state of existence soon is called the "Duple"... it's a freak of time, few of us will survive, but our way of thinking will change drastically. May God help us all.

Spiderpig   August 18th, 2009 2:10 pm ET

I don't understand why its a bad thing if our universe continues to expand. Whats wrong with eternity or forever??? Whats wrong with the idea that life will continue on and on with out an ending. This big crunch..aka the sound that men make when they eat potato chips...lol... Where do they come up with this stuff????

Conservative Independent   August 18th, 2009 2:13 pm ET

"Very interesting stuff. When you think about it all it really makes you wonder. Oh and as for Babaelf’s comment on the story, you have the right to believe what you want and state your beliefs but honestly noone really knows what will happen and you have no evidence to back up any of your beliefs or claims because they aren’t based on rationality. So, let’s not have a irrational discussion on a rational topic. *) Thank"

Science hasn't proven or given evidence for it's theories either. When it comes to creation of the universe we are all basing our arguments by what we have faith in. (Higher beings, or Science).

Babaelf   August 18th, 2009 2:14 pm ET

One cycle is twelve thousand million years [12,000,000,000 – 12 billion years]. Scientists know nothing at all about cycles, but this hint will open their eyes. The evolution of THIS world began two billion years ago and evolution, which started from the nebula, will last until the completion of the cycle – when the Mahapralaya (the total dissolution of the universe) will take place. Scientists will never know when the universe began. The most they will be able to discover with advanced telescopes is when the last expansion of the universe took place. There have been countless Mahapralayas over the course of the universe's history.
The human form has been evolving for millions of years and will continue to evolve. After a billion years, man will only be five inches in height at the most but will be very brainy. In the beginning of this cycle, man was fourteen feet tall and would live up to three hundred years.

If I were answer that the first man came upon this earth eighty-four million years ago, what would that mean to you? But the whole explanation will make you understand how the first man evolved, and how this first-evolved man has repeatedly, millions of times, been appearing not only on this earth, but on millions of earths [that have come, burned out and gone]. And so he is ageless, timeless. But this has all to be explained properly.

The Book which I personally wrote [1925-6] when I had just stopped speaking and which I wrote in one year . . . explains this point clearly. It is important for the world and the scientists to know, and therefore I have explained about cycles, the position of the earth for Realization, the earth dying and the simultaneous evolution of another earth – not just any other planet; when was the first human being evolved, when was the first Realized Being, whether the chicken or the egg came first – all has been revealed in detail in that Book [which is as yet unpublished and not available yet to the public, possibly in the last quarter of this century]. These are Excerpts from the biography of Avatar Meher Baba, Lord Meher p. 4070 http://www.lordmeher.org type in page number on left side search bar.

I have the actual experience of it today and feel the universe and creation emanating and projecting out of me. I feel all today that which I had a mere glimpse of then. Creation evolves and involves only re-evolving again. It is a never-ending game! I’ve explained it all in detail in my book. Even scientists will be astonished to learn the secrets explained there – not vague talks, but facts, substantiated and supported by scientific arguments. It will be the future Bible – not in the literal sense – but a book of understanding for people of all religions. [Lord Meher p. 1606–07]

The Creation-point is a finite point. And out of this finite point the whole of the infinite creation is issuing forth. It is a continuing process; there is no end to it. Out of a Speck in the infinity, called the Creation-point, has sprung forth this whole creation in various stages. This world of ours is nothing but a most finite speck in the Speck. Although to you it appears to be worlds and universes, for me it is nothing – not even a tiny speck. Scientists will gradually come to know what I have been saying for many years and am repeating today. It is not possible to see all the universes and worlds. They are not visible even with the most modern means. Nor will it be possible for man to reach them or contact them; yet, scientists will come to know about it. [Lord Meher p. 6005]

Scientists understand evolution from the first life to the last human life, but none knows why this evolution of forms takes place. After human life what is there? The scientists know nothing! It is due to the evolution of consciousness that all forms evolve. For example, take the body as consciousness and clothes as the body. Now, the size of this shirt is according to your body. If a hand is cut off tomorrow, the shirt might be minus one sleeve. So, due to consciousness the body changes.

Roy   August 18th, 2009 2:19 pm ET

What does it matter none of us will be here anyway. I wonder who will be the last human alive and what will be their name? Any answer's for that one??????

Babaelf   August 18th, 2009 2:23 pm ET

MAHAPRALAYA: This is the term used for when the Creation rests and goes to sleep. Nobody knows how many Mahapralayas there have been. We would be shocked to know and would be at a loss to comprehend it. The age of the universe is one of the holy grails of cosmology. Some scientists estimate it to be at 10 billion years old. But that’s only since the last Mahapralaya, or total collapse of the universe to rest for billions of years before rebooting again. Likely, within two billion years the universe will collapse again.

Babaelf   August 18th, 2009 2:26 pm ET

Scientists mistakenly think that if they can determine the age of the universe they will know when Creation took place. At most, they may be able to go back to the last annihilation (Maha or “great” pralaya), because after each one it takes a very long time for Creation to begin again. At the time of total annihilation, all the forms in the seven kingdoms of the evolution of consciousness disappear. Then, for ages their limited minds take blessed rest in the Universal Mind, only to reappear again when evolution reaches their subway stop next time around.

Jim   August 18th, 2009 2:30 pm ET

While levitating my astral consciousness above the terral plane, I became aware of the great emptiness residing at the center of all existence. With knowledge gained from a previous life cycle that such was an impossibility I sought to expand my consciousness to other universes and seek out pure knowledge to resolve this conundrum. In my ethereal travels many disembodied spirits did I meet and they all expressed their own interpretation of a similar observation. Returning to my physical form I found that the fire had gone out in my bong and that a great darkness had spread across the contents of the bowl. With one concentrated mental effort I produced fire and relighted my pipe filling the darkened black hole with a glowing fire that expanded into the room filling it with light..................ah...what were we talking about again................puff...puff....puff...

Yeahimright   August 18th, 2009 2:34 pm ET

How would the universe collapse when over half of its mass was expelled as radiation that just happens to be way beyond the farthest visible objects known to man by well over a trillion years of travel time at the speed of light.. And as far as that mysterious dark matter.. Try a couple billion other giant black bodies, Primordial eggs and such way beyond the furthest reaches of our universe's event horizon pulling these distances to unimaginable and incalculable numbers.
It is amazing to me that logic fails to meet reality when these so call scientists pull the theories out of their hairy brains.Stop passing this tripe of as even plausible. Fs all around. The Universe will expand into space endlessly and other Universes will expand into ours endlessly and this will continue perpetually as they fuel each other to rebirth. Intelligent design would be alot less intellectual if it ended in the same hole it started in. Even this is funny stuff.

Mr. Big   August 18th, 2009 2:57 pm ET

You all talk as if time was uni-directional. Time progression is merely a concept, a fabrication of our minds so that we can make sense of the world around us. Truth is, time exists as space does. Your birth, your death, the Big Bang, the Big Crunch.....are all merely coordinates in space time.

Universe getting bigger or smaller? Irrelevant. Just as irrelevant as walking forward or walking backward. Your memories of the past are simply made up of neural connections in your brain. Technically, you can never prove that one second ago actually happened.

So all this talk about the Big Bang and the Big Crunch will end up only as an exercise of knowledge.....but not of the determination of our "fate"......because when all time exists simultaneously, fate is reduced to a simple redundancy.

Steve   August 18th, 2009 3:15 pm ET

@stu

I was under the impression the big bang couldn't keep going and going "creating matter", because.... matter cannot be created or distryoed only change forms? And then that makes me wonder if it can't be created how did it come to be. And that makes me wonder how would matter simply exist. And that makes me wonder about those that say god created everything, where did he come from and how did he come into being did something make him? and on and on.

sorry this post sounds like a stoners ramblings.

NachoMan   August 18th, 2009 4:17 pm ET

Hmm. I'm only about half way through "A Brief History of Time" (for the fourth or fifth time now). When I finish, I'll be back to argue the merits of Big Bangs, Crunches and Maha-pralayas.

Ali   August 18th, 2009 4:20 pm ET

Do you really think it was just all by chance? We can't even fathom how expansive the universe is. If I believed it was a random "bang" and our existence is pointless, I would seriously live my life in fear like many of you. But all it takes is a little faith to believe that there is Someone in charge of all of this, who happens to love us as well. The more you believe in Christ, the you will have peace and purpose.

"For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse." Romans 1:20

Ali   August 18th, 2009 4:21 pm ET

Steve – perhaps God just "is" – there is nothing to top Him. Think about it, it has to end somewhere, there has to be someone at the top to be able to "create." It's God! He just IS.

chance   August 18th, 2009 4:27 pm ET

!!!!!GOD!!!!!!

NachoMan   August 18th, 2009 4:29 pm ET

Mr. Big's post is interesting. I wonder, though, about your claim of the irrelevancy of whether or not the Universe is expanding or contracting. If all events are coordinates in space time (I buy it), then if the Universe is expanding I would think that many coordinates are still being, and remain to be, plotted. If that's the case, how are all events in space-time occuring simultaneously?

Tim Thompson   August 18th, 2009 4:54 pm ET

Matter is easily created & destroyed, it's energy that is conserved. Energy & matter are interchangeable; when matter is created, it comes at the expense of energy which changes into matter, and when matter is destroyed it simply transforms into energy, the two being related by Einstein's famous equation (energy = mass times speed of light squared or E=MC^2).

As for the "so-called scientists", big bang cosmology in fact makes perfectly good sense and is completely consistent with the laws of physics as we know them. But it is nevertheless only an interpretation of those laws, and is therefore subject to change as our knowledge of those laws changes.

Like I said before, there is a big difference between "believing" and "knowing", and it is popular to pass off belief as if it were knowledge. I will stick with knowledge and leave believing to those more comfortable with such things.

T   August 18th, 2009 5:00 pm ET

You know what it all means? That nothing means anything; there is no significance to anything; life or non-life, it's all the same; life has no more importance or significance than non-life. And what is life anyway?
'Dust in the wind' has much wisdom to it.
We may all be nothing more than one of God's dreams.

Rich   August 18th, 2009 5:04 pm ET

Big Crunch,.. sounds like something Kellogs is selling. I don't wanna bite! I like my universe expanding like it is. Besides, the Big Crunch, sucks as a modern day theory. Who's waking up to that now anyway??

For lunch, give me some Dark Matter stew. "I'ds sho iz hunngry!!" I love Dark Matter stew, I never ate it,.. but some how it fills me up! Afterwards, I wash it down with a Gamma Ray Burst, what,... you still red drinking red bull!? That's energy drinks for quarks. I'm celestial. Ego like rappers. Like Snoop Doggie Dog Say, "Ain't no love Ho!".

Speaking of Love,.. and Hoes, any one see Dark Energy lately!! She move too quick. Everything in existence is leaving me,.. and yeah, "I'm blaming HER!!" Last I seen her I called her a degenerate, she said,.. wait a little while and I'll be. Still don't understand...

How bout a bowl of that Big Crunch??

galileo   August 18th, 2009 5:34 pm ET

In the beginning there were wave functions. As virtual particles formed and were destroyed some wave functions and virtual particles interacted to form– a real particle. As trilions of years lapsed more particles formed amassed and a sigularity eventually exploded in the big bang... All it takes is time - lots of it and you have a universe.. perhaps God planned it–perhaps not.. Because you cannot comprehend does not mean its not true.... God is beyond your scope.. but we can comprehend the universe and become closer to god.. That a wonderful thing.... Open your mind through science or close it through religion- the choice is yours...

Malaiperumal Sundaramurthy   August 18th, 2009 5:49 pm ET

Guys & Dolls: This is how it works! It is all about duality. Take a magnet for example. A north pole is created simultaneously as the south pole is created, equal but opposite in strength from a neutral state. Similarly the expanding universe has a back plane where the dual state of contraction takes place at the equal but opposite rate. The connection is called the worm hole. The dual of expanding spiral galaxy has the contracting spiral black hole on the flip side of the universe. To summarize: A big bang expansion takes place simultaneously with a big bang crunch behind it. We live in a 4-D universe where the edges are all the 3-D. Referring you geniuses to read more on Point Care's Conjecture and the recent proof by the Russian Mathematician.

Cosmologist   August 18th, 2009 5:57 pm ET

Perhaps it would be better to get into a little more detail about the meaning of this article and what's it talking about from a cosmological point of view (for those of you that are unaware, cosmology is the scientific study of the universe as a whole, including its origins and its ultimate fate. The field involves astrology and physics for the most part.) I think some of things I'm talking about are directly related to some of the previous posts.

Most of us are familiar with the Big Bang, but there are some misconceptions about the details and how it is related to the Big Crunch. I'll detail three.

(1) First of all, the Big Bang did not start at any particular "place" or "time". The concepts of space and time (or spacetime as physicists usually call it; since Albert Einstein's theory or relativity, there is a general consensus in the scientific community that space and time are actually inextricably linked) originated at the Big Bang along with the rest of the matter.

(2) Matter is not "made" as the universe continues to expand. What physicists mean by the universe expanding is not that the distance between galaxies and clusters of galaxies are increasing because they are moving away, in fact, it is because space itself is actually expanding. The usual analogy that is used is to think of is galaxies as points on a balloon. As you blow into the balloon and make the balloon larger (simulating the expansion of the universe), the space between the points on the balloon increase. This isn't because they are in a sense moving with respect to the surface of the balloon, but the surface itself is expanding.

(3) The idea of a Big Crunch is not unfounded, and it's related to something that we are all very familiar with: gravity. The idea is that no matter how far away an object with mass is from another (galaxies, apples, planets, stars, etc.), it will always exert a gravitational attractive force on all other objects with mass. So in a sense, there is a "contracting" force in the universe in the sense that all things are gravitational attracted to each other, even if it is sometimes extremely small or even negligible due to extreme distances. Whether or not gravity will actually pull the entire universe together is related to the amount of mass in the universe–the more mass there is, the stronger this "contracting" force will be. If there is enough mass in the universe to counteract the "expanding" force cause from the Big Bang (and possibly dark matter), then the Big Crunch will not happen and continue to expand.

We don't need to know the initial conditions of the Big Bang to find out the critical mass of the universe either. This is something physicists have been trying to do, and the reason we haven't found out it's exact mass (at least to a reasonable amount) is because there is simply so much data and because we don't know if other things come into play besides known matter (including visible matter, dark matter, and energy).

The debate about the fate of the universe–the scientific one–is still ongoing. Though we have discovered a lot about our universe, especially in the last century, there is still plenty we do not know–even for scientists who dedicate their lives to finding out. So I think it's safe to say, for the layman, most of us do not have the slightest adequate scientific understanding of the universe to make any opinions about it, and I don't think I'm an exception, so I won't.

Personally, I think the best thing to do is to make yourself as knowledgeable on a subject before you forge your opinions, especially on something as important as the fate of the universe. It makes no sense to not listen to others and to think that you're infallible. And it's true that everyone is entitled to an opinion, but we aren't talking about a person's right to have one, we're interested in which opinions are credible. So it's not an excuse to dismiss another's opinions as "just another one."

I'm only here to clarify a few things from the scientific standpoint as a person interested in cosmology, and hopefully, this will make things a bit easier to understand.

Brandon   August 18th, 2009 6:10 pm ET

As for my rebuttal to Conservative Independent's comment, I have to say that yes, I do acknowledge that science is not always accurate and you took my comment out of context. Perhaps I should've been more clear.

No, science isn't always right. I agree with that and I never tried to imply that they are always correct. My point was that it's absurd to even contemplate on a primitive mythological reason for such things. If you'd like to think the flying spaghetti monster is behind everything you or science cannot explain or understand, fine. To each their own. It just doesn't make sense to because it's absolutely ridiculous and is outside of the scope of rationality and logic.

Enough said.

redwolf68   August 18th, 2009 6:28 pm ET

Babaelf's comments are familiar – within the Hindu faith, there are a series of time-periods relating to the ages of Man, Earth, the Universe and all Creation. What they add up to is 4,320,000,000 years, which is about the scientifically-theorised age of Earth. So evidently, the Hindus have been on the right track all along.

As to the quotes from the Qur'an? Well, if they are indeed the divinely-related words from Allah to Mohammed (peace be upon him), who are we to argue? But it should be noted that Allah never put an actual time-limit on creation (unlike the Creationists who are absolutely certain that the Earth is only 6,000 years old – their reasoning is not only spurious, it's also fallacious and baseless), and in truth, neither does the Bible. When, in Genesis, "the evening and the morning were the first day," the writer never says just how long that "day" was – he doesn't say 24 hours definitely.

I don't necessarily buy the idea of a Big Crunch myself, but even if we can't prove definitively that it will ever happen, then neither can we entirely rule it out. Man will likely be long gone from Creation by the time it does happen – our existence is a mere blip in geological time, a fraction of a blip in astronomical time. So who are we, really, to say?

Morrie   August 18th, 2009 6:50 pm ET

Stars and light or no stars and light. Nothing and darkness is still something, isn't it? So what's on the other side of the darkness and nothingness? More stars, more nothing or a big eye looking at the whole thing and all of this darkness and light was simply an atom in someone's test tube.
All of this is to say, how the hell does anyone really know anything, other than what we can see?
Too bad we'll all be long gone when the real answers are found, if they ever will.
Until then, I think I'll have a Big Mac and coke.

james hotz   August 18th, 2009 7:37 pm ET

Do you think God could cover 13 billion years of universe? I think not, but then who says's there is only one God, maybe there are two Gods. And if there are two, there could be one for every galaxie. But the preacher says I can live for eternity, if I believe what he says. I say What will I do for eternity? And where is there any place in the universe nicer than it is right here? Therefore we must be in heaven already, how sweet it is.

james hotz   August 18th, 2009 7:48 pm ET

Picture yourself as a photon traveling threw space, you get to the edge of the universe and keep going, untill the universe looks like a faint star. now you look around and you see many other faint stars that are actually other universes, in the vastness of space. these universes may be a trillion light years apart. But if before the big bang there was nothing but space, where did all the stuff to make energy and mass come from? If it's here, then on the other side of space, there must be more, energy traveling for trillions of light years. There must be no end to the vastness of space it goes forever.

Admiral   August 18th, 2009 8:14 pm ET

Hey, believe what you want. I'm off to an Italian resturaunt with some fellow Pastafarians for a religious meal. Will the universe expand forever or crunch again, who knows (other than the FSM and he's not talking), and really, who cares? I loves me some science, but, I'm not going to be around to see how the universe turns out.

May you be touched by his noodly appendage.

RAmen.

Hipocriticuspie   August 18th, 2009 8:22 pm ET

The last human beings name?Oh that's easy,his name will be Bob.And to baebel....WHAAAAAAAAT!!!! Don't ya-ll know this is just some really good video game.Hit the resett please,I want to start over....but this time I wanna be a rockstar!

W   August 18th, 2009 8:31 pm ET

I propose we begin civilization outside of the earth's atmosphere in the event of a disaster (asteroid coming for us, we kill the earth, etc.) and then we can harvest the resources of asteroids and planets and use them for our expansion.

What do you think?

jamez   August 18th, 2009 8:47 pm ET

Is the universe Finite?

Could the universe be " chasing its tail ".
What was, Is, Is to be.

elmer fudd   August 18th, 2009 9:11 pm ET

The apostle saw the heavens and earth roll up as a scroll and pass away, another apostle saw a new heaven and new earth coming down from heaven, is this what you are referring to as the big crunch followed by another big bang

Chuck Clay   August 18th, 2009 9:31 pm ET

If three words could describe the universe and everything in it, they would be "Rythmic Balanced Interchange" The secrets of the universe appear in every observable fact of nature. This fact is that everything in nature exchanges place with it's polar oppisite in a rythmic cycle.

Problen is, that what you are seeing in the universe as it appears is only half the cycle the expansion part. The other half is beyond your senses. Seeing is not beliving, except for the simple minded.

You can know the sound a harp string makes when it is still, but you can see(hear) the sound only when motion is applied. As the motion slowly dies, the string will become still again and will remain that way untill energy is once again given to the string.

Same same for light and dark. It will stay dark untill light is introduced. You can't see the light when it is dark, but you can know it. Thing is, everything in the universe is composed of light in differeft states of compression. Sound has a slow wavelength and sunlight has a very hight wavelength.

Will we crunch? Oh yes, it is inevitable. As we expand through the process of radation, we will again compress through gravity. And so on it goes for what seems like forever in our perception of linear time. Water evaporatesand expands and radiates outward, then gravitates, compresses and the cycle continues into Rythmic Balanced Interchange" As above, so below"

Everything we see depends on very fast motion. As we can see, all motion eventually comes to an end. This being the case, all things we sense(eyes, ears, etc) create the surpreme illusion, and yet learned men are making scientific statements about this and that based on something that not real,(the illusion of motion).

In the sense of linear time, this universe was never born but will never die. An oxymoron for sure. So the answer to knowing and understanding the universe lies not in bigger telescopes, but in expanded awareness of mind. After all, everything you experience happens in your own mind, not out there somewhere. It just seems like it.

If what I say is true then you ask, whats the point? Is it just some big cosmic joke? No joke, but a schoolhouse for spiritual(that which is not seen) development. Problen is, we are all still in the third grade. Enjoy the experience. We will get to have over and over again until we graduate into knowing. Knowing is still.

elmer fudd   August 18th, 2009 10:44 pm ET

While you,s are looking into the moment when creation/evolution began i would like to,look in the other direction, when the big crunch has come , compareing the amount of collected mass when the heavens and earth began compared to the amount of mass in the heavens to day , i believe it is only logical to say when the crunch has fully contracted as far as it possibley can, it will be followed by another big bang that will create a future universe multi trillions times bigger than the known one we now see, this could possilely be about the distance in the future as it was from the beginning to the crunch It is interesting to note that all or most of these planets and moons that has formed , have mineral ores, oils, gases, water and ice, since meteors are largely ice ( frozen water) it is logical that by the amount of meteors hitting these planets and moons and impacting below the surface that they would have large under ground water or aquifer reserves possibley a good portion good water for human consumption, i believe that there is no total void or absence of atmosphere , even though the atmosphere pressures differ from what we have, it is reasonable to think any life form out there could be different from forming in different pressures than we have , but not necessarily with standing there could be some where other human races as we are, ( just like finger prints form on humans dureing the woman carrying the developeing child , it is the different pressures in the womb that gives us different finger prints, but there is no law of nature that says that two or more can not have the same finger prints, when you consider the massive trillions of people that has lived on the earth and the trillions from now to the big crunch there would have been masses that had the same prints,

genesis continuous   August 18th, 2009 11:25 pm ET

First, knock out Big Bang.
The most distant galaxies are said to be 13 billion light-years away.
The edge of the contained universe 13.7 billion light-years away.
The universe is expanding away from here at an ever increasing rate exponentially across the radius to the edge, apparently in every direction; putting us right slap Bang in the middle.

Andre Linde stated that we could see the youngest galaxies in the universe 13 billion light-years away,
and 'amazingly they are still there'. However, their light has taken 13 billion years to reach us, (The light was young when it left it's source and we see it 13 billion years later). How can those galaxies 'still be there' if they are expanding away from us? Even in our relative tiny solar system the sun is not where we see it but is 8 minutes eastward of where it appears in the sky.

Should we bend the rules just to protect 'singularity-big-bang' ?

But that's just part of the farce. Stars shine globally; we prove that by going around the sun once a year just to make sure. So all those stars out there are not torches. They may look like torches, but any star sighted 13 billion light-years away, as sure as eggs are eggs, is shining away through the assumed containment at least 13 billion light-years. But that has to be ' was', because we only see the history of 13 billion years ago. We know that the source of those lights has gone; flown the coop, vamoosed.

OK, having been really rational about this subject, and not knowing the rate of expansion, where would one expect those galaxies to be now; and how old will the universe be under those circumstances? Would 13 plus another 13 plus another 13 billion years be enough? It may be more because the expansion has been increasing over this 13 billion year period.

There is no earthly reason why the observable laws of nature should be distorted to fit a theory to fit a mythology of it all being created in 6 days. God would have had to have created those most distant stars 8 billion years before he switched our sun's light on.

So, if we have to look beyond 39 billion years, how about just saying it's boundless; all in balance creationally; always was and always will be, worlds without end. And if there will be worlds without end, we can add everything else as well.

David

Resqrider   August 19th, 2009 12:25 am ET

I seem to recall, What the Bible teaches. In the beginning GOD. is how it begins read Genesis chapters 1-3. Moses, under God's direction, wrote the Creation account , and after sin entered the world in Genesis, chapter 3, there was no mention of the destruction of the earth as God originally designed it. God gave man the knowledge he (man) has now, and God never intended to destroy the planet He created. Even in the Book of Revelations, the Apostle John, saw and wrote down, that God would restore the Earth to it's original state, including the Garden of Eden. The Bible is a statement of fact. NOT FICTION, OR A COLLECTION OF PHILOSOPHIES, as many men would have you believe. So instead of trying to prove theoriesor make assumptions, look to God's own Words for the answers.

Dennis   August 19th, 2009 12:59 am ET

If astrology is going to be introduced, then I may as well present
my thoughts on the orgasm theory as a model of the contracting and
expanding universe. I have not fully explored such a theory, but
it will be my first step before considering the idea of astrology as an
energy in the universe.

Schwartz   August 19th, 2009 1:31 am ET

Question.
What about if the universe had NO beginning, Then all the big bang theories are out the window. Somehow we are not wired to be able to think on something that had no beginning [Always existed] but we can think of something that will never end.
So far all comments are elucidating, thanks

big crunch   August 19th, 2009 1:35 am ET

Big Crunch means that everything would just repeat itself, no chance or contingency?

Chris   August 19th, 2009 1:39 am ET

hmmm....i think the best way to describe the universe is by observing things close to us on earth. For example, a drop of water, assuming water is the universe, it can only expand as far as it's total mass and the elasticity of the universe (water). What happens beyond that we will never know, will it be a rubber effect (as in big crunch) or assuming that the universe is biological in nature will break and expand like a single cell but in any way, i believe regardless how it goes, God (higher being) is science and whatever we observe or learn are all his doing , the only difference is that we have yet to know what he knows or plan to do. (and probably will never know)

Barry   August 19th, 2009 2:42 am ET

We all look at the universe through a very narrow window of oportunity . while we are all bickering between each other about what is , the truth is allowed to elude us .when looking at anything (the universe included, )we must remember that the information we hold about such a thing is the very tools we use to observe and explain it.and if when we look at something only through the eyes of what you can prove(evidence), then i say again , our view of the universe is extremely limiting. my opinion is mostly meaningless to everyone , but our opinion as a pecies is most definately not, and will play a major part in our evolution.

jt   August 19th, 2009 2:45 am ET

Cosmologist,

I'm slightly confused about the following statement in your misconception point (3):

"If there is enough mass in the universe to counteract the “expanding” force cause from the Big Bang (and possibly dark matter), then the Big Crunch will not happen and continue to expand."

Did you mean to say that under the conditions mentioned that the Big Crunch "will" happen and that the universe will contract?

If no, will you further explain?
Thank you

Anthony   August 19th, 2009 2:51 am ET

What does it matter none of us will be here anyway. I wonder who will be the last human alive and what will be their name? Any answer’s for that one?????? – Roy

A: Keith Richards

Eric Parlin   August 19th, 2009 5:23 am ET

To cosmologist:

I think you meant to say

"If there is NOT enough mass in the universe to counteract the “expanding” force cause from the Big Bang (and possibly dark matter), then the Big Crunch will not happen and continue to expand.

And you make some very good points, but...you're a jerk. I think most of the comments on here are very entertaining, but not factual by any stretch. Not everyone can be as smart and book-learned as you, and that's a shame. Did everyone read comsmologist's comment?!!! Everybody stop typing and listen to him!!! OK, "c"...I got them paying attention now, please continue. I await your next entry with the utmost excitement.

hj   August 19th, 2009 5:51 am ET

First "Know Thyself"....and then you will come to know that the universe is there and is not there...simultaneously!....Theres' this theory called the "Theory Of Uncertainty" which says that matter at its fundamental level is both a wave and a particle, when you reach for the ultimate tiny particle there a wave appears and, when you reach for the wave, a particle appears.....you can catch niether at any given moment in time....so at ones most fundamental, intrinsic level, we who are made of matter, exist and do not exist, simultaneously....and all this magic, this vast mirage that is the universe, this magnificent dream, whose light takes so long to reach us that it may not even be there when it does finally reach us.... is happening in now....and now is an eternal moment....so have faith, and breathe in peace :) science can never explain it all says the "guru" of science himself in his "A Brief History of Time" and strangely, befuddled, baffled and bewildered by the universe he himself talks of a God he finds so hard to believe in !!!
Truly, I say to you, Darwin, Marx, Hawkings are not the answer, you yourself are....Physician, know thself, to heal thyself !

Antar Rasal   August 19th, 2009 7:02 am ET

I really felt "Babelf's" story very interesting and was astonished to read so many readers feeling offended, or agitated. Why not a contraction of the Universe? If there is an expansion, then it's no more than logic we have a contraction too. And i don't think that will be the end of life itself forever, becoz again in a new cyclus consciousness probably will evolve out of matter. So why not accept Babelf's objective and agnostic's theory? I didn't find a hinge of arrogance in his both stories and we are not here to put down people's opinions. So please drop the old habit of judgemental critizism and emotional disagreements.
60 years more isn't so bad either... don't you think? :))

dave   August 19th, 2009 7:09 am ET

The universe is only spiritual in individuals minds .At this point in humanity the universe is way to vast for us to really comprehend what actually took place 13.5 billion years ago or for that matter yesterday our concept of time,space,and distance is limited to our own experiance on earth. Just keep in mind that all theorys are just that, theorys.it is human nature to want to put a face on anything we dont understand. certain things had to have taken place to cause the big bang that above all else is the million dollar question.

Archie   August 19th, 2009 7:58 am ET

It never ceases to amaze me that people readily accept the "big bang theory" yet totally disregard the notion of devine creation. I believe that our concept of time and science was so childlike in the Biblical era that it is reflected in the accounts of creation. Just a "theory".

Herb Gilliland   August 19th, 2009 8:00 am ET

As a scientist, I can back my claims with evidence or make the assertion that we do not yet know the cause. Don't mix science and religion unless you are studying the effects of religion on populations, scientifically. Religion is basically mythology. Science is merely the acquisition and deduction of fact.

With the universe accelerating as it expands, a "Big Crunch" seems unlikely. While there are many theories about what the accelerating universal expansion means, we are not yet sure of its impact. Since the 1970s, scientists have discovered numerous recycling systems within the universe, leading many to believe that the universe may never stop expanding and creating new matter and energy.

Antar Rasal   August 19th, 2009 9:04 am ET

Dear Chris, and all others that mention the (corrupted) word "god" in a scientific debat about the "Universe". I feel that the concept of "god" plays no valid role here. Because "god" is the 'common layman's made fiction, long ago invented to explain this vast universe. The god concept therefore is synonymous with: "I don't know why and who created this universe, this earth, and all this life, and i don't need to know, becoz i believe in God as a higher being". (who is omni potent and omni scient, and who takes all responsibility"). I'd like to say that i have come to the understanding that there is no "god" as a higher being because that would make us inferior, enslaved and limited. We are just manifestations of evolved consciousness, of freed energy, and divine certainly. Life is, love is, and it's certainly all Godly, and we are all part of this festival, but to create some image that runs the show and makes us puppets may indicate to a fearful, naive mind that shirks responsibility. Religions are based on this image and millions are even today still conditioned and brainwashed with the idea of a "god" who takes care. Religions have all over the world been against any scientific progress because it would shake their foundations which are based on superstitions. Even a Christian pope in the 15th century denied that the earth was round and that it is moving around the sun, and had the author (Galileo) of that statement change it in his book.
Please do not believe the lie(s) that have been perpetuated for so many times (generations) since early childhood, and that clouds your consciousness, forget about "god". Friedrich Nietsche wrote a book "god is dead, now man is free", but i feel that's not correct, i feel it's better to say; "god has never lived in the first place, man has always been free.
This universe, this life, this tremendously beautiful planet earth is huge gift to all of us, better not waste your life quarreling or murdering who or what gave it to us. Let science find out, i trust the intelligence of Man to find out who or what god is.

Whit sincere blessings

nicholas copernicus   August 19th, 2009 9:15 am ET

While it's interesting to talk about the "age" of the universe, when one really thinks about what one is saying, then it becomes clear how absurd such a concept really is. The first problem is definitions. we have to know exactly what we're talking about in order for it to make sense.
The universe: As far as I can tell, the author of this piece probably believes time is a part of the universe. Let's think about that for a second. What exactly IS time? As has been mentioned or alluded, time is simply a concept used to organize events.
Time itself is no more real than "justice." And if time is an intrinsic part of the universe, then it makes little to no sense to say that time, and by extension the universe, had any sort of beginning. That’s why I like Hawkins’s “No Boundaries proposal.” Think about it.....We're saying that time has existed.....for a certain amount of time (13.7 billion years).... Huh? Well, if time has existed for an amount of time, did that time let's call this t[2]) exist for a certain amount of t[3]? And did t[3] exist for a certain amount of t[4], and so on ad infinitum.
So it would be a fallacy to hold both that:
1) the universe is finite (or has existed for a certain amount of time).
2) time is an intrinsic property of the universe (like, say, gravity).

because such thinking is inconsistent. You don't need a scientific education to figure that out.....a few classes in philosophy might help though.

cheers,

Nick

dooku45   August 19th, 2009 9:17 am ET

If matter cannot be created or destroyed then the idea that the big bang created all everything is in itself improbable. Perhaps it was simply a supermassive star that went supernova 13.5 billion years ago that has hidden whatever the real answer may be. Also, if you wish to say that it was the last "Big Crunch" that brought all matter to a single point and then the big bang happened, then the big bang (which is generally depicted as a star exploding) would have left the mother-of-all-black-holes in the center of the universe. Surly we would have detected it. I do believe what babaelf said was total nonsense but perhaps he is on the right track. Conventional ideas may not work in a cosmic sense. Perhaps we are waiting for another Einstein to come up with another big theory. Also if space and light bend then the universe would be much younger than we think it is as the light from the big bang would have been bent at some point and thus taken longer to reach us. Possibly the idea that the universe is all-existent may make some sense. The Big Bang could have been some star going black hole "13.5 billion years ago" as the fabric of the universe would have broken at that point, is it not entirely possible that we could have fell through the gap and now be somewhere outside that fabric? It is theorised that a white hole inside the black hole spews out all that it eats but we know almost (essentially) nothing about black hole. Unless we strip some of the fundamentals of physics, the universe seems to contradict itself.

Oh yes, and babaelf... go start a cult in somewhere other than in science or math. We need all the people we can get who will cut the religious crap from learning. (Which means we need people like you to weed each other out.)

nicholas copernicus   August 19th, 2009 9:17 am ET

While it's interesting to talk about the "age" of the universe, when one really thinks about what one is saying, then it becomes clear how absurd such a concept really is. The first problem is definitions. we have to know exactly what we're talking about in order for it to make sense.
The universe: As far as I can tell, the author of this piece probably believes time is a part of the universe. Let's think about that for a second. What exactly IS time? As has been mentioned or alluded, time is simply a concept used to organize events.
Time itself is no more real than "justice." And if time is an intrinsic part of the universe, then it makes little to no sense to say that time, and by extension the universe, had any sort of beginning. That’s why I like Hawkins’s “No Boundaries proposal.” Think about it.....We're saying that time has existed.....for a certain amount of time (13.7 billion years).... Huh? Well, if time has existed for an amount of time, did that time let's call this t[2]) exist for a certain amount of t[3]? And did t[3] exist for a certain amount of t[4], and so on ad infinitum.
So it would be a fallacy to hold both that:
1) the universe is finite (or has existed for a certain amount of time).
2) time is an intrinsic property of the universe (like, say, gravity).

because such thinking is inconsistent. You don't need a scientific education to figure that out.....a few classes in philosophy might help though.

cheers,

Nick

Maurice   August 19th, 2009 9:23 am ET

GOD = Something man invented to explain things that man cannot explain.

If there is in fact one god, then at any given time, billions of people are wrong because they believe in the wrong one. How lucky for you if you worship the 'right' one simply by accident of birth or later by brainwashing.

And for the 'lucky ones', how lucky for you to have an eternal life to ponder about what you are going to do today, tomorrow or next millennium. How many infomercials will you be watching during your eternal life?

Tim   August 19th, 2009 9:36 am ET

Cosmologist and Herb got it right. My question is why do we need it to BE anything? Why not just accept it as it is and continue to add to what we all ready know? Why are we so invested in the idea that there has to be a big Crunch? The Universe is so beautiful, so wondrous, that no matter which side of the aisle you're on, the mystery is the beauty our minds can travel and perhaps, our minds are expanding faster than the space around us.

Antar Rasal   August 19th, 2009 9:40 am ET

I'd like to quote 'Schwartz' brilliant question;

What about if the universe had NO beginning, Then all the big bang theories are out the window. Somehow we are not wired to be able to think on something that had no beginning [Always existed] but we can think of something that will never end.

So far most comments are elucidating, thanks

Archie   August 19th, 2009 10:23 am ET

Herb . . . Science, as you refer to it, is therefore the realm or study of "known" (or thought to be known) facts at this point in time". Throughout history men have been ridiculed, jailed, often put to death, for scientific theories which (in may cases) turn out to be scientific fact as time passes. Two hundred years from now the scientific community may look upon your definition of scientific knowledge and giggle. Again, just a theory.

Selva Lee Tucker   August 19th, 2009 11:08 am ET

An interesting thought, and, to take it to a scfi fun thought, when things start reversing will we come back to live in reverse, going from old to young to birth? and then, when it all reaches the one small point again, will it all repeat itself again, THE BIG BANG!, and we go thru all this again, being born, meeting wives, having the same children and dying? Only, millions to billions of years later, going forward and backward, again and again over and over and over?
ARE WE DOOMED TO THIS EXISTENCE OVER AND OVER AND OVER FOR ETERNITY?
umm, can also be a chilling thought on self determination and free will vs, Pre Determined Destiny. Man, philosophy classes can have a lot of fun with this

sally   August 19th, 2009 11:33 am ET

yes, but we could be one of an infinite number of level 2 universes, bubbles in the soup and maybe a bump here and there could wipe us out. CRASH!! or the brame could warp a certain way and rip away half or more of our universe leaving up with a partially blank sky, like torn paper. all the rant of silliness whose math has gone to places so absurd that it a bit early to fret. as for the dark mat/ene: isn't that still a supposition?? created to explain why out mass of galaxy are not behaving as newtow said they must?? back to my cracker jacks. there is a better chance the answer is in there, somewhere, non euclidean.

Babaelf   August 19th, 2009 11:33 am ET

To Selva Lee Tucker Re: ARE WE DOOMED TO THIS EXISTENCE OVER AND OVER AND OVER FOR ETERNITY?
An emphatic no! You will wear out those impressions eventually, after ages and ages, unless you hitch your wagon to a Star which gets you there much faster. That Star is the same Ancient One who appears on earth every 700-1400 years in a different disguise, but always the same One, as is called the Avatar, Buddha, Christ, Prophet, Rasool, or in this age the Compassionate Father - many names for the very same Ancient One who gives the creation and all kingdoms in it a "push" toward ultimate Realization: Infinite Bliss individualized, without further need to reincarnate in the Divine dream of the false universe again. By that time you've either won it yourself or it is given to you as a boon ages before you'd have ever achieved it on your own. Love and Love alone–not organized or un-organized religion can get you hitched to that Star. What does love mean? Giving and not wanting or taking; making others happy even at the expense of your own happiness. Loving is very different from lust, desire-wanting. It's easy to love someone whose lovable, but try loving the one you cannot love - that comes pretty close to it. [babaef]

Tim Thompson   August 19th, 2009 1:13 pm ET

Steve: "I was under the impression the big bang couldn’t keep going and going 'creating matter', because…. matter cannot be created or distryoed only change forms?"
dooku45: "If matter cannot be created or destroyed then the idea that the big bang created all everything is in itself improbable."

It is energy, not matter, which can neither be created nor destroyed. Matter & energy are interchangeable. The process for creating matter from energy is called "pair production", where a matter – antimatter particle pair is created at the expense of energy. The reverse process of annihilating a matter – antimatter pair is equally prosaic, energy appearing at the expense of matter. So this is not a reason for rejecting the big bang so readily.

Antar Rasal: "What about if the universe had NO beginning, Then all the big bang theories are out the window."

The big bang theories are not so readily cast "out the window" since they are all empirical (based on observation). It is rather the interpretation of the 'bang' that goes out the window. Was the 'bang' a true, unique beginning, or simply a transition from one state to another that we can't see beyond? This is the point of pre big bang cosmology in string theory (colliding 'branes' and the 'ekpyrotic universe'), or 'bouncing' cosmologies in loop quantum gravity & string theory. There is quite a cottage industry now in scientific pre big bang cosmologies.

nicholas copernicus: "While it’s interesting to talk about the “age” of the universe, when one really thinks about what one is saying, then it becomes clear how absurd such a concept really is. The first problem is definitions. we have to know exactly what we’re talking about in order for it to make sense."

The concept is not at all absurd and is in fact very precisely defined. The age of the universe, as seen by any observer, is the time a clock in free fall would measure on a trajectory from the 'bang' to the observer. This is the general relativistic "proper time". Of course, the age of the universe is observer dependent.

Cosmologist: "(for those of you that are unaware, cosmology is the scientific study of the universe as a whole, including its origins and its ultimate fate. The field involves astrology and physics for the most part.)"

Our friend cosmologist got it mostly correct. But I hope they really meant to say "astronomy" instead of "astrology".

All scientific theories are designed to make sense of the facts as we know them. Change our knowledge of the facts through learning and we are apt to change our theories as well, and sometimes radically so. We should not treat any current theory as if it were cast in immortal stone, but neither should we dismiss things too readily without a thorough understanding of why.

wally   August 19th, 2009 3:35 pm ET

Back ground radiation is proof to a big bang? Where did the single point come from? This pseudo-science is nothing but another false religion. An expanding universe does not prove how a universe began–mere speculation. The Bible says, "In the beginning, God created..." Anything that suggests differently is bogus!

genesis continuous   August 19th, 2009 5:58 pm ET

How about – [The universe had no beginning, therefore, has always existed and continuously creates what everything is made of]. So if the law of Conservation is accepted, the universe is an eternal, infinite boundless recycling cosmos. Creation is a continuum.

If you want to put GOD in the equation, that's your choice. It is interesting that God did not snap his fingers and make man – He made him out stuff that already existed, although the Bible says He created man. – There's the relationship, Recycling?

If God made the stars, he made them so they shine globally. Their light has freedom to travel in all directions and is absorbed by what it strikes or can be reflected. If the bladder containment is not a mirror then star light has the potential to escape beyond where that mirror is claimed it is by Science; probably billions and billions of light-years beyond.

Why complicate it? All that I said in my previous comment is rational; it fits with simple observation; Big Bang certainly does not.

David

Doom   August 19th, 2009 8:48 pm ET

Isn't strange that Hubble hasn't provided any proof that man walked on the moon?

It is powerful enough to take a picture of the American flag; which should still be there.

Oh well, meanwhile we'll keep dreaming about something else...

lockeanddemosthenes   August 19th, 2009 11:37 pm ET

So what does all this mean for the human race? If, all of this other discussion aside, we decide that, as humans who die every 80 years, we live in a universe that is (so far as anyone knows) expanding, then what are we going to do? W asked why not try and populate other places to prevent out extinction? I'd echo that question. We went to the moon 40 years ago. Why didn't we continue to expand on those programs? Are we just going to sit and wait until we're forced to move elsewhere? What if it's too late? No one is going to show us the way (probably). If we're so satisfied with the human race, why don't we ensure it will never go extinct? And if we're not sure the human race should continue, well, we're in a grave situation indeed.

nicholas copernicus   August 20th, 2009 12:16 am ET

Tim Thompson wrote:
The concept is not at all absurd and is in fact very precisely defined. The age of the universe, as seen by any observer, is the time a clock in free fall would measure on a trajectory from the ‘bang’ to the observer. This is the general relativistic “proper time”. Of course, the age of the universe is observer dependent.

Yes, I understand what you wrote, but I'm not sure you understood what I did. Perhaps my writing could have been better. Note that there are many different definitions of time. The time that you describe "clock time," is simply a correlation between the rotation of the earth to the movement of hands on an analog clock, or tracking the shadow of the sun on a sundial. I’m not sure if that’s an adequate description of time. In other words, you seem to be saying that the age of the universe is x amount of earth rotations.
Do you believe that "time" can have a beginning?

Cheers,

Nick

Chris   August 20th, 2009 6:04 am ET

Dear antar,

don't get me wrong, i totally believe in science and believe that science and the believe in god (higher being) is actually indirectly same.

why? the reason is
a) i believe in energy and with energy it needs motivation to be constructed (eg, kinetic need circular motion to obtain it...correct me if i'm wrong), therefore for the universe to be in the state as it is today, someone or thing have to start the ball rolling and i'm pretty convinced it is a being rather than a thing.

b) i don't believe in coincidence therefore explain my lack of belief in "a thing" that started the universe. In biblical account that state we are all connected as part of god body isn't all false scientifically if we assume that either the universe is actually god or the higher being. (we only assume the universe is a thing but what if it is not? for all we know we are just atom in a bacteria or virus)

c) in the end of everything, if we are related, so are all things, even theories and mythology, we just need to find the relationship. Peace. V(^v^)V

Tim Thompson   August 20th, 2009 1:18 pm ET

nicholas copernicus: ... "The time that you describe “clock time,” is simply a correlation between the rotation of the earth to the movement of hands on an analog clock, or tracking the shadow of the sun on a sundial. I’m not sure if that’s an adequate description of time."

Oh, no. The time I describe is the proper time as defined in general relativity, which is an absolute invariant. There is one and only one invariant proper time between events in general relativity and it is independent from the observer, or any other "definition" of time. But since each observer occupies a different location in spacetime , each observer will derive a different age for the universe, unique to them. Hence, the age of the universe depends on the observer, but the proper time definitely does not.

I would say that there is one and only one definition of time: It's what you measure with a clock. In this case "clock" is an ideal & perfect machine, unlike any real "clock", which suffers natural noise & uncertainty (the rotation of the Earth for instance is a lousy "clock").

But of course this creates a problem:
What is time? It's what you measure with a clock.
What is a clock? It's what measures time.
What is time? It's what you measure with a clock.
What is a clock? it's what measures time.

Nobody has the foggiest notion what time is other than something that we measure with a clock, and use in equations of physics. So whether or not it has a beginning is not a question we can seriously answer; how can we know that if we don't even know what time "really" is? Then again, from a practical point of view, it's easy to answer. Of course time can have a beginning. After all, how can there be time if there are no clocks? If the universe as we know it literally comes into existence, does time not come into existence along with it?

Even more frustrating is the serious question whether or not "time" actually exists independently from us or not. Is time simply an illusion, like an optical illusion, which derives from how we see the universe with our senses? One of the interesting aspects of modern quantum physics is that the universe is far easier to understand if we simply do away with space & time altogether, so that only the quantum field exists (see, for instance, Ed Witten's essay on the fate of space & time, or Carlo Rovelli's textbook on quantum gravity).

The universe can be (and in fact is) far more complicated than one might wish.

Chuck   August 20th, 2009 3:37 pm ET

In "The Mighty Boosh", the shaman Saboo (a huge proponent of The Crunch) advises Tony Harrison that he has no idea what to do when it comes to The Crunch. Neither do the rest of us.

T   August 20th, 2009 9:31 pm ET

Populate other planets or places in the universe? Forget about it. It is NEVER going to happen. Do you realize we can't even get the Space Shuttle launched just because it's CLOUDY? Think about THAT! No shuttle because it's freekin cloudy! Boy, we're REALLY an advanced civilzation, aren't we?! And we have to switch landing sites because it's raining! Think about THAT!
We are so ignorant in our knowledge of almost everything in life, in the universe, in the cosmos. We know practically NOTHING about anything. But, oh yea, we'll just start flying humans around the cosmos to start anew elsewhere. IT AIN'T NEVER GONNA' HAPPEN!
This is it, fellow humans, the earth. It's all we've got, our home, for good, so get used to it and try to save it. By the time we acquire the necessary knowledge about the cosmos, and the wisdom to apply it, WE WON'T EVEN BE HERE ANY MORE! Either we will become extinct as a species as all species do eventually or the planet will be too cold or too hot or just 'dead' itself as an object in space or the sun will have expired, etc, etc.
Those sci-fi predictions you hear about cockroaches or leeches or ants or dinosaurs (again!) ultimately becoming the dominant life form here may not be too far off the mark.
OK, boys and girls; everyone suit up; get those space clothes on; kiss your loved ones goodbye; we are goin' planet hunting!
Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha!
IT AIN'T NEVER GOING TO HAPPEN!

lockeanddemosthenes   August 21st, 2009 5:32 pm ET

T: While your synopsis of our situation may very well be correct, isn't it worth exploring? If the earth becomes too hot, Mars will warm up: it would be able to sustain human life. I suppose the more likely solution is we end our species in some sort of nuclear warfare first though.

As far as "time" goes, it is important to remember that "time" and "minute" and "second" are all words we have given meaning. The way we measure time is only relative to our planet. I'm afraid, despite all our genetic evolution and vast brain power, knowing how time really works is far over our heads. Unless there was some way to evaluate time from different parts of the universe...but that isn't ever going to happen.

genesis continuous   August 21st, 2009 5:55 pm ET

Nice one Chuck. IT AIN"T NEVER GOING TO HAPPEN

It's going to take at least 3 generations of travel to get to our nearest neighboring star, and who knows if it has a hospitable planet or not – Oh Dear; move on.

They'll do that for a few more generations finding unsuitable planets and wonder what the hell their doing out there. 'A planet?' the 4th generation kids will ask, 'what's that?'. When their parents tell them they'll just laugh in disbelief.

Imagine living your whole life in a space ship with NOTHING TO EAT, you've watched all the old movies hundreds of times. And the official psycologist has gone mad.

But what's worse, a thousand years later, the ship crashes on a perfectly suitable beautiful absolutely gorgeous planet already occupied by very advanced creatures who discover it full of skeletons wearing shirts with NASA written on them ....and something, YANKYS. The whole ship is also infested with bugs just itching to get out and before long every living thing on this beautiful planet has died. – Wonderful buildings, incredible transport systems, electronic marvels we've never dreamed of here on earth, and everything pristine and intact – excepting life – Just waiting for .........................

Yes, this is our planet; get used to it; and damned well look after it, or the BIG CRUNCH just might be something entirely different from what we're talking about here. 'Want to live on Mars?' Could be that Estate agents may get there first. 'Huge skies, sandy beaches, (when we find water), archealogical digs, views to die for, only three years travel to your nearest supermarket. Comes with a 2 billion gigabyte hardrive of all the movies ever made on it. Plus one apple tree for the first couple who sign up.

David

Jesu Torres   August 21st, 2009 11:08 pm ET

now i am not trying to start anything here .. i just wanted to share a little something that got my attention.

is it me, but the more we study and figure things out about the origin of everything, the more it looks like chapter one in the book of Genesis?

now from what i have been reading, Nasa says that in the beginning, everything just appeared out of no where.

according to Nasa / CNN
-) The Big Bang did not happen at a single point in space as an "explosion."
It is better thought of as the simultaneous appearance of space everywhere in the universe. (-

so what i'm getting from this is ... out of no where something happen and matter was created.

according to Gen. chapter 1 verse 1 it reads, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth."

now what i get from that is, ... out of no where God created something.

Nasa then said ... "The "Dark Ages," a period of time when there was no light, followed the Big Bang." The first objects illuminated the universe a few hundred million years later.

what i get from this is ... there was darkness and in darkness there is no visible form of anything... . then later on light came to be and things started to take shape.

now Gen. chapter 1 verse 2 it reads. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.

the next verse reads, "And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light."

now i don't know about you .. but i find it very interesting lol

not trying to start no argument, just trying to give you something to munch on.

i got my nasa source from

Hai   August 22nd, 2009 2:50 pm ET

@Babaelf- Riveting tale, chap!

I'd like whatever he's smoking.

Antar Rasal   August 22nd, 2009 3:25 pm ET

All this awkward bla bla of brainwashed parrots trying to intellectually move heaven and earth to prove that GOD exist, and that the Genis scripture runs parallel with NAsa's latest theories.. sounds sooo pathetic. Why does there have to be a GOD? And if there is a God that created all and evrything, then WHO created God.??????
I can certainly accept the idea that The Universe has no beginning or end or that it contracts and expands, and that all that, is synonymous with the very word """god""", but please don't let the childish mind keep fooling you with all the different fairytales and man made images of this vast unexplainabie, unknowable Universe. We can't talk about something we haven't experienced fully ourselves and certainly not about something that is way and way beyond the small human mind, which is functioning at only 2 tenth of it's full potential.
There is no God as such and there has never been, let go of your sweet teddybears and grow up. Use your intelligence and doubt every believe.. thats how science works and that's the way we have evoluated so far. Best greetings
Antar Rasal

T   August 22nd, 2009 10:38 pm ET

lockeanddemosthenes; Yes, I agree, it's all worth exploring, anything and everything that we can experience thru our senses, including exploring the possibility of continuing the human race somewhere other than on Planet Earth.
My point is, however, that the cosmos is so vast and even the nearest bodies at such great distances that, with our infitisimally small knowledge and our incredibly backwards technology, coupled with the great amount of time needed to learn and develop new knowledge about anything, that there simply will not be enough time for the human race to learn enough about space travel before we disppear as a species, either naturally over time or unnaturally (war, disease, etc) or before the Sun burns out, or before the earth is destroyed by asteroids hitting the earth, and so on and so on; get the idea? Do you know what I mean? We as a species simply do not have the option of taking our damn good time to figure out space travel and nation building on other celestial bodies. It's never going to happen because we're going to run out of time, period.
So, boys and girls, children of all ages, make the best of it while you can!
T

Jon   August 22nd, 2009 11:39 pm ET

Some cosmologist believe the dark energy expansion will not only tear apart galaxies and star systems, but eventually planets and the things living on them, including matter itself – the Big Rip is where we could be headed, folks.

Ferga   August 23rd, 2009 12:03 am ET

I dont understand. If the universe many years ago was smaller, concentrated in a smaller space, how can we now see that universe?
Maybe once the measure of the universe was 1,000,000 yearslight beetwen 2 points (say stars). So, the light of one of those stars lasted 1,000,000 to reach the other one. This already happened 13,1 billion of years ago.
If we assume that due to the expansion of the universe these two stars increased the distance between them at a lower speed than that of light, how we now are seeing an event whose light has already passed us? It is now impossible to see any event that happened in the past of an object located closer in the past.
So what astronomers are now looking to 13.1 billion yearslight? This object now observed, where was 13.1 billion years ago? And where were us (or the space now occupied) at that time? Obviously, both were closer to each other. If the expansion of the universe isn't faster than light, the light of an event happened 13.1 billion years ago have passed us long time ago.

Ferga   August 23rd, 2009 12:10 am ET

If the expansion of the universe isn’t faster than light, the light of an event happened 13.1 billion years ago have passed us long time ago. So, how can we see the past?

Lancelot   August 23rd, 2009 12:51 am ET

There are as many theories as there are people in the Universe, so here is mine.

1. Science and Religion are not compatible, but one can not exist without the other. However, Religions kill the non-believers, while Science redicules them that think beyond the current beliefs.

2. Dark Matter is light beyond and/or below our known spectrum.

3. Dark Energy is thought. That's right when a person thinks, whatever, it creates Energy which can be measured but not seen. This Energy does not disapate, it continually exists, thus it takes up more and more space, thus expanding the Universe.

4. The existance of Dark Energy proves the existance of other living beings in the Universe and as we and these other beings reproduce we create more beings capable of thought thus creating more Dark Energy and expotentionally pushing the Universe further and futrher outward.

5. Only by killing, in this Universe, every living being capable of thought will we be able to put an end to this Universe. Then and only then will it collapse back upon itself.

6. This is only a theory (unproven fact). Please forgive my misspelling if it exists. Remember to Err is Human, to Forgive is Divine.

7. I speak only of this Universe not all of the others.

Have a nice forever!!

Rossco   August 23rd, 2009 3:27 am ET

The Big crunch??? Why is everyone talking like they don't know whats going on? didn't that already happen? Everyones talking about it! I lost a lot of money in property and have detrimental bank credit. When will the big credit crunch be over......? Anyone got some advice for me??

Brendan   August 23rd, 2009 7:30 am ET

Babaelf August 18th, 2009 11:47 am ET

The moment Creation appeared, the entire cosmos became automatically goal-directed – designed for the sole purpose of evolving self-conscious and eventually God-Self-conscious life. This self-evident fact is missed by scientists, creationists, Darwinists and proponents of intelligent design in considering the origins of the universe and human life.

--–
Your argument falls flat in that this "self-evident" fact is not missed by the quoted institutions. They describe this theory, along with others like it, as considered "a priori."

In theory it states this:
If we exist then the laws of the universe can not exist without taking us into account, for if the laws change, then we wouldn't have survived to experience it, therefore this is the only universe that can exist.

Used in the idea of the "Big Bang" or Universe Creation, the idea of a priori is this:

1. We exist
2. We exist because the laws of observable physical reality allow it to be so.
3. If the laws of physical reality were different, then we could not experience it and so we wouldn't be here to know it.
4. Therefore this is the only way the universe can exist, and as such we are the reason for its existence.

a priori knowledge is gained through experience rather than scientific study and therefore is usually left to philosophers and theologians rather than the institutions you state.

Here is an example of a priori knowledge that is proven wrong by the scientific method.

1. We exist
2. We exist because the laws of the observable physical reality allow it to be so.
3. The laws of observable physical reality show that if I stand on a flat plane in Kansas, I will see the sun rise in the east and set in the west.
3. We exist on a flat earth with a small sun orbiting it every twenty four hours and the stars revolve around us in the heavens.
4. The universe could not exist in any other form or else we would not experience it.
5. If this is the case, we exist at the center of creation and its ultimate goal is for us to exist to witness it.

For thousands of years, this was the extent of our observable physical reality, until the development of mathematics, measurements, scientific observation and the invention of the telescope, and therefore the common excepted theory for creation.

It also proved to be wrong.

Scientists and researchers are not naive enough to completely discount our role in the universe, however they are also not naive enough to put us front and center in its cause and effect.

In a few billion years (well with in the time frame of your collapsible theory ) the sun will burn itself out and all life on earth will cease to exist. Will the universe still exist if man kind does not survive?

Of course it will, we just wont know it.

In the meantime, we still have a few billion years to observe, calculate, philosophize, theorize, and speculate on the reason for our existence.

Perhaps you are correct in your theory. Only time will tell.

jammer5   August 23rd, 2009 8:50 am ET

Take religion out of the equation. From a science viewpoint, religion is a non-entity. While it exists, it has little or nothing to do with science.

For whatever reason, the big bang happened. Be it the 'God' particle, a confluence of two universes or whatever, it happened. At some time in the distant future, our universe will rip apart and what will be left are sub-atomic particles: an empty, dead universe.

Jersey Bob   August 23rd, 2009 8:55 am ET

What I haven't seen discussed here is WHY there is no evidence for a Big Crunch and all evidence pointing towards a Big Freeze - the universe dispersing to the point where not just stars and planets, but atoms and subatomic particles dissipate.

1) The rate of expansion (acceleration) of the universe is increasing, not decreasing. This was discovered by Edwin Hubble. To have a Big Crunch, the rate of expansion would have to be slowing. The evidence for the continuing expansion points to dark energy.

2) There is simply not enough matter for the expansion to decrease. Slowing down would require gravity produced by much more mass than exists in the universe. The outward expansion from dark energy is greater than the inward pull of gravity.

And...

@Tim Thompson: in processes greater than subatomic scale, time is not an illusion. It is a dimension. You can measure it with a clock, but the simplest equation is that t=C. Time travels at the speed of light.

@wally: there IS NO single point of where the universe began. It began everywhere because spacetime itself is expanding. The universe isn't an explosion that sprang out into empty space; there was no empty space until expansion began.

Rhodes   August 23rd, 2009 10:04 am ET

I wonder at the use of finding whether of not our universe will contract or if it has expended at all.
Imagine that in some future, near of not, we actually find out, 100% sure, what our universe is doing and where it has been. Then what? What exactly would we do with the info? Could we cure diseases? Bring peace? Find out where that elusive God is? I think not.
So, what's the point, really, besides the ever-hungry egos of some scientists who love to baffle us with theories, guesses and analysis, all of which could very surely be wrong and vain? There is no point to any of it. I'll go even further and say that that famous Big Bang of theirs has never actually happened. Yes, they can point to certain bits of data and dazzle us with ideas and words that really mean nothing but in the end, it's just the product of someone's mind echoed by more minds all of whom love to listen to their own voices.
Of course, there is nothing wrong with dreaming, especially when the dream is fueled by an over-active imagination.

St. Augustine   August 23rd, 2009 10:26 am ET

If the Stars are in the Space, what is Space in? The point is, we have about as much perspective as a tic on the back of a yak, probably even less.

MrMac   August 23rd, 2009 10:36 am ET

Nothing like expressing your ignorance with confidence.
The notion of big crunch was first proposed by Ernst Opik in his book The Oscillating Universe.

Givemeabreak   August 23rd, 2009 10:44 am ET

The Big Crunch......hmmmm...kinda of sounds like the noise being made on Obam's toes as the nation has rallied and is stomping out his plans. IMO.....'cause it is just that.....as a Christian Conservative, the Earth is not 4,000 years old as some of my hard headed breathern say, the Earth is much older, Dinosaurs roamed the Earth, the Big Bang did happen. Christians should not be closed minded to this. After all...what was ther before the Big Bang?.....nothingness....sorry....God started it all......with a bang!

universe is a donut   August 23rd, 2009 10:51 am ET

Expanding and contracting universe is not a contradiction if one consider a "donut-shaped" space-time model of the universe.

The center of one side is the Big Bang; and the other side the Big Crunch. Matters traverse from one side to the other.

From an observer along the path, matters are fleeting apart initially. Over enough time, matters will contract towards a center.

A "donut-shaped" universe is also a closed system.

–Inspiration from my breakfast.

Brendan   August 23rd, 2009 1:01 pm ET

Rhodes August 23rd, 2009 10:04 am ET

So, what’s the point, really, besides the ever-hungry egos of some scientists who love to baffle us with theories, guesses and analysis, all of which could very surely be wrong and vain?

-----------------------------

Discovery in itself is a valuable point.

When the first apollo astronauts turned their camera around and photographed earth for the first time, it changed the way humanity looked upon this place we call home. That one photograph was more instrumental in understanding our place in the universe and how fragile life is than any other discovery made at any time. Without scientific exploration of the heavens, we are doomed to live in a stagnant pool of our own ignorance.

I'll take a few ego's trying answer baffling questions, a few dead ends, a few guesses, for more moments of eureka, big blue marbles, and universal understandings.

The more we know of the universe, the more we know of ourselves.

Finally to answer the question more directly, what good can come of it? I don't know. But if we don't look, theorize, study, question, and explore, then absolutely nothing.

Theorist   August 23rd, 2009 1:55 pm ET

Matter and energy are a part of everything, and the universe is the only god that I believe in.

Although I much to prefer to believe in the Big Crunch, I have to admit that a heat death sounds so much more likely. Even with gravitational forces aplenty, I don't think that there's enough gravity to cause the universe to contract. After all, if that were the case, wouldn't blue shift remain constant or even slow?

I'm also leaning towards the multiverse theory. With space being infinite, we shouldn't be so naive to think that there aren't other singularities out there that are awaiting their Big Bang or have already begun the process of heat death after expanision.

And if the multiverse theory is correct, then combined with the idea that our own universe will forever expand, I am curious as to what will happen when these multiverses begin to collide. Perhaps these collisions will be so violent in nature that they will begin to form new singularities, and a new universe will come out of a next Big Bang.

Just some of my own ideas...

Patti Gallacher   August 23rd, 2009 4:03 pm ET

We don't know how long God's 7th day of creation is – it could be as long as time unmeasureable. With respect, science and scientists have one-zillionth the intelligence of the Creator (God), how can they(we) know for sure. I do not have to understand God in order to believe in God.

I do believe that we are fractals of God, who created us in God's image. If we are fractals we can see all of ourselves in the image of God. At one with the Creator, I AM.

It is fun to ponder....humans are incapable of asking a question without also having the answer...hmmm. All only my opinion.

pattigee

Jersey Bob   August 23rd, 2009 9:40 pm ET

@St. Augustine: you asked "If the Stars are in the Space, what is Space in?"

People asked this question for hundreds of years. In the Newtonian clockwork universe, objects were extended in space, like billiard balls bouncing around on a table. Space was only an empty canvas.

But Einstein's theory of Special Relativity showed that objects aren't extended in space; they are spacially extended. Stars, planets and tea kettles are part of the fabric of spacetime, like bunched-up places on a blanket.

Superstring theory, M-theory and quantum mechanics all show that the universe is part of a multiverse. It's likely that all the infinite space we see is part of a larger membrane of a higher dimension. There are probably an infinite number of universes only millimeters from your fingertips, stacked like sheets of paper. Only we can't visit them w/o ripping a hole through spacetime that would require greater energy than we can currently produce.

It's possible that when two of these membranes collide, it causes an explosion that spawns baby universes. The Big Bang might have been one of those.

elmer fudd   August 24th, 2009 12:53 am ET

i personally believe that scientists are now looking back so far that what they see no longer exists, perhaps a few closer ones that are a couple million light years may still be in existance, it is interesting that these heavenly bodys can self destruct and blow debris for millions of light years in just seconds, and begin the process of evolveing back in to a planetary system again over billions of years, it would be wonderfull to know truthfully for sure if in fact life as we are exists some where in the heavens, it would seem logical that it should, it seems impossible that if it does that they have not made contact them with us or us with them, what we see on the computor is creatures , if they are peacefull we should not harm them, they should have a right to life as should we, i have not seen UFO,s or ALIENS if they exist i would like too.

Brent   August 25th, 2009 7:33 am ET

When asked what happened after the big bang, Johnny Carson replied, "the big cigarette." Enough said, since worrying about whether the universe will expand or contract is like flees arguing over who owns the dog they're on.

I do understand and appreciate the scientific curiosity though; but I'd rather people like Babaelf went back to his/her spiked hooka and mushroom trips to the outter rings of planet Moron.

nearly100percentatheist   August 25th, 2009 6:14 pm ET

Isn't it the case that we need to have a theory about what happens on the other side of black holes to complete our accounting for matter and energy in the visible universe? From this side, a black hole in our universe appears to destroy the information (that is, something like the knowable organization) that is inherent in the light and matter that are pulled into it. If black holes rip apart the light and matter that enter them, or even if they just take particles out of the universe, unless black holes return energy doesn't that tend to reduce the amount of matter and therefore reduce gravity in the universe? With less mass through the action of countless black holes, wouldn't th euniverse tend to continue losing the force holding back acceleration of expansion?

On an orthogonal note, I wonder whether the other side of a black hole in our universe is the center of the beginning of another. If there is a multiverse, would there be any reason to assume that all universes are of equal size? I see no reason to assume so... So, matter and energy may be pouring out of our universe thereby creating a new one on the other side. Might our universe be formed the same way, with a black hole in a possibly larger universe pouring contents into it? Could the other side of a black hole be a Big Bang?

Of course, if black holes empty back into the visible universe because space-time fabric is a bit folded, thereby conserving energy (if not mass), then this problem goes away...unless black holes do destroy information after all. What would the inverse of a black hole look like and/or behave?

Finally, I will note that we are capable of observing our existence in roughly 3-4 dimensions. Some believe time to be a human construct and describe their existence in 3. Others attempt to imagine what 4 dimensions "looks like." Cosmological equations suggest there are many more (13 or so in string theory? more in other models?). I do not think a 2-D stick man inhabiting a blackboard would be able to describe the universe as we understand it, even if he believed in time as a dimension... For instance, he would observe a line passing through his plane as a point that appeared then vanished. Therefore, I think it entirely possible that we will always be limited in our ability to conceptualize multi-dimensional (5 or more) reality though it may exist.

Antar Rasal   August 26th, 2009 5:38 am ET

To Brent, I wouldn't be so hard on Babaelf Brent. U gotta admit though he brings a lot of spice and stuff to think about.
Without his comments this forum would be a lot more boring.
I guess u can even thank him for stirring up old apprehensions in you, he triggers stuff in people who perhaps are prejudiced to certain ways of thinking or living.
Either way i totally digged yr brilliant metaphore about the two flees arguing who owns the dog they are on... bcoz that's exactly what we silly tiny humans are trying to do, talking about and about and about..without understanding even a bit of who we are. Know thyself first and then thy will know all...
Best greetings Rasal

Antar Rasal   August 26th, 2009 6:44 am ET

Dear Chris, sorry for replying so late.. But i was just trying to make some people understand that the word "God" or God concept has been relentlessly misused out of context, and has no place in a scientific discussion or exploration.
Believing in God or anything requires 'no doubt'. A belief is accepting something as true without exploration or investigation, in other words: no inner or outward search for the truth. No questioning!!
Science however functions completely opposite, No belief is allowed or even possible, doubt everything, try everything, question, and experiment until you find the truth.
I understand from both these extreme sides that life is both, both Godly and evolutionary. And that there is no real division between Divinity and Evolution. They are one in fact. Just like two banks of a river meet underneath. The mind can never ever understand this because it functions dualistic. The very question who or what created this universe and life derives from this small ocean wave (our mind) and is therefore futile. Mind cannot go beyond itself, but consciousness can go beyond mind. And that's the only way to experience God or Ultimate Love. Belief will be unnescesary once you experience the divine. Once you know 'him'

You wrote:

don’t get me wrong, i totally believe in science and believe that science and the believe in god (higher being) is actually indirectly same.
***Why believe in Higher being or science? Belief in yrself first and then don't rest before you find out the god inside you.

why? the reason is
a) i believe in energy and with energy it needs motivation to be constructed (eg, kinetic need circular motion to obtain it…correct me if i’m wrong), therefore for the universe to be in the state as it is today,
***That's very possible, perhaps some law of mechanics at work... i'm far from being a scientist of the outer world.
someone or thing have to start the ball rolling and i’m pretty convinced it is a being rather than a thing.
****That indicates your ignorance about the "someone or thing" and makes your conviction scientifically ungrounded, and perhaps (most likely) originated in accepting a lie that has been repeated enough (early childhood) and finally dulled your questioning.

b) i don’t believe in coincidence therefore explain my lack of belief in “a thing” that started the universe.
****sounds logical, because what in its turn started that"thing?"
In biblical account that state we are all connected as part of god body isn’t all false scientifically if we assume that either the universe is actually god or the higher being.
****The bible and all other so called holy scriptures are without exception divine experiences from ordinary human beings who tried to convey the unconveyable, the untransferable, and later on got totally misinterpreted by scholars and commenters. But in the first place those meetings/unities with the Divine were beyond any mind concept anyway and could only be indicated upon. Priests, rabbies, imams and organized religions have used those twisted, out of context commentaries to exploit and suppress humanity for ages/milennia just to fullfill their own ego.
(we only assume the universe is a thing but what if it is not? for all we know we are just atom in a bacteria or virus)
*****Science cannot afford to assume anything, that's not how science functions. But if science remains focusing only to an outer world it will and can never find the truth about God, this Universe which has no beginning and no end. How can "nothingness" has a beginning or an end? Nothingness just is.......

c) in the end of everything, if we are related, so are all things, even theories and mythology, we just need to find the relationship. Peace. V(^v^)V
*****Exactly!! All and evrything is related and interdependent and we just need to find the Balance between them all.. the golden middle..

Peace be with you my friend.. Love and light as well..

Rasal

Mad Merv   August 26th, 2009 10:04 am ET

Black holes do not "pour crap out into another universe", they compact matter into a dense form, compounding gravity and drawing light into them. The idea that you can travel through them is almost myth. It's a scientific conundrum poorly explained in our current paradigm of scientific thought. White holes observed dump matter out of them. One theory has been that black holes feed white holes through a space-time fold, but I don't know if I believe that they are "gateways to other dimensions", but, rather, a universal phenomenon of dense, compacted matter, whereas white holes are energetic and therefore produce matter as a side-effect. Black holes have a lifespan, so it may be that black holes are merely temporary states in a universe of transient forms, and nothing more than ultra-dense ultra-gravity points..

pratherth   August 26th, 2009 11:06 pm ET

Oldmom,

You're worried about health care reform after reading this forum? Does anything you've read actually make you think us as individuals are really significant in the universe as a whole? Do you think that health care reform is so important that with it our country will prosper? Our doctors have contributed over 8 years of their life to education only to have all of it taken away and watch their salaries they've worked so hard to obtain fall like the rocks we see drop from the sky. I doubt they think it's as pretty.

Let's compare ourselves to an exploding volcano or a Katrina and then think... Global Warming... Do you actually have the audacity to think YOU have an impact on this world? Do you think your car is really going to melt a glacier?

We are ants compared to what surrounds us. We live in a box, media driven, and refuse to look beyond it.

We use 11% of our brains.....

lolhealthcarereform

Joe   August 27th, 2009 2:26 pm ET

"After a billion years, man will only be five inches in height at the most but will be very brainy. In the beginning of this cycle, man was fourteen feet tall and would live up to three hundred years."

Obviously true. All one has to do is look at the fossil record to see that we used to be twice as tall and have been slowly shrinking from one generation to the next. .. you know, or not.

At least the elf is more amusing than most of the idiots you see making up "my god did this, my god did that" nonsense.

darkroxas   August 30th, 2009 10:13 pm ET

babaelfs theory is only his opinion but we don't know what will happen for sure

Babaelf   September 1st, 2009 8:57 pm ET

Well, everybody seems to have gone totally asleep here between Expansions and Contractions of the Universe....But before you do, consider this. And I, as babaelf, will take a lot, meaning a lot, and yes a lot of flack for this, but so be it and I'm delighted to accept it.: The speed of consensus on the planet, whether personal, scientific, medical or geo-physical has increased exponentially in the last one hundred years, more than in the last five thousand years put together. Just absorb that fact for a moment. Until the mid-1800s, the primary sources of power were muscle and fire. In just a century, we went from the invention of the steam engine to splitting the atom and then into outer space. In 1800 it took weeks to get a letter across a country. It now takes milliseconds to get an email from anywhere across the globe.
Mankind’s giant leap in 1969, just a few months after Meher Baba finished his Universal work on earth and dropped his physical form, was not simply the technical know-how to put a walking man on the moon. Perhaps even more so it was the unprecedented event of global unity at that very moment – however fleeting – when for the very first time in known history, billions of people all over the world stood in singular unity, suspended in front of their TVs, radios or simply gathered together in town squares, worldwide – in big cities and small.
They watched in breathless anticipation, focusing their hearts and minds as one-heart, one-mind, sending waves of love, support and God-speed to our astronaut brothers who were breaking the bonds of earth’s gravity to open up a New Age. In that moment there was no Muslim, no Jew, no Christian, no atheist, but one heart and one mind, focused in awe on our mutual destiny as humanity. There was one voice crying out, “We did it!” meaning not the Americans, for God's sakes, but humanity had physically transcended and gone beyond the earth.
Every once in a while you see that scene from the first moon-base, “One small step for man. . . .” And each time you see it you might fleetingly think, “Oh, shit, that tired old clip again.” But what it signifies isn’t what happened on the moon, but what happened on earth that day – the unprecedented global unity of all the hearts that beheld it.
For sure, that moment of global unity was transient. But it was a spiritual allegory for the deeper experience of Unity that will be shared by all humanity in the new-coming age - or its remnants, should the catastrophic events long predicted actally come down upon us by 2069. But from where did this all this come? It’s clear that some enormous evolutionary impulse has visited the planet in recent times, catalyzing entire processes of civilization. How can you have missed seeing and realizing this? Where were you???
What or Who could give us such an unprecedented push? The answer is so knee-slappingly evident, and yet in the face of it humanity is totally in the dark and unaware, and will remain so until the latter third of the 21st century. By then, Meher Baba’s Manifestation will have taken place and everyone will come to know of it in their own very personal lives through EXPERIENCE. Meanwhile, humanity is kept on its toes with the sheer volume of news placed daily on its plate - so fast that it's almost un-assimilable.
When those astronauts turned their camera around and photographed earth for the first time from our moon, humanity changed the way it looked upon this blue-green jewel we call home. One poster on this blog has already said these exact same words. Confucius’s “A picture is worth 1000 words” was never truer than on that day. That one photograph was more instrumental in understanding our place in the universe and how fragile life is than any other discovery made at any time in recent centuries. Still, here is how Meher Baba referred to even this glorious but “bogus news” of the outer illusory world.
"However far man may fling himself into outer space, even if he were to succeed in reaching the furthermost object in the universe, man will not change. Wherever he goes, he will remain what he is. It is when man travels within himself that he experiences a metamorphosis of his self. It is this inward journeying that matters, for the infinite treasure – God – is within man and not to be found anywhere else outside of himself. When mind soars in pursuit of things conceived in space, it pursues emptiness. But when man dives deep within, he experiences the fullness of existence. [From http://www.lordmeher.org -- p. 6216] and by the way, lest anybody be deceived, babaelf is simply a parrot, quoting Meher Baba's own words. So don't blame him for your dissatisfactions, blame BABA!!!.
Despite quantum physics pointing us toward spiritual truths, we’ve not kept up with revelations pertaining to the inner world, given to us by present spiritual Masters. There are great discoveries in spiritual realities unveiled now, previously hidden and unknown in humanity’s past. One Infinite Intelligence manifests as Love Incarnate, repeatedly as the God-man in human form, fully unveiled as the Messiah, while fully veiled in and as you. How to grasp the meaning of that expression “in and as you?” Meher Baba put it this way:
"The Avatar is God, and God becomes man for all mankind and simultaneously God also becomes a sparrow for all sparrows in Creation, an ant for all ants, a pig for all pigs, a particle of dust for all dust in the Creation, a particle of air for all airs, etc., for each and every thing in the Creation.” This is not just poetry. When God incarnates as the Avatar, He literally becomes each of these things, conscious of Himself not only as an individual Divine-human being, but experiences Himself in and as everyone and everything. This is what is termed Universal Consciousness.
The five Perfect Masters effect the presentation of the Divinity of God into Illusion. Divinity pervades and presents Itself in innumerable forms – gross, subtle and mental. Thus, God mingles with mankind as man and with the world of ants as an ant, etc. But the world of man cannot perceive this, and simply says, “God has become man” remaining satisfied with this understanding in his own world of mankind. But something far deeper and pervasive is going on. [God Speaks, p. Before One became Two, There was No One but You
Making sure humanity understood this, in the early 1960s Meher Baba dictated to his close disciple, Bhau Kalchuri, a special prayer. Entitled You Alone Exist. Composed of 56 couplets, it describes the all-pervading nature of God manifesting in creation. Baba said that one day this prayer would be said in households all over the world. Here are a few couplets:

There is no one without You! You are manifest and unmanifest, as you alone exist.
You are man. You are birds. You are fish and animals, for You alone exist.
You are the moon and the stars, the dawn and the night, the sun and the light. You alone exist.

The Avatar’s Legacy
It’s time for humanity and not just theologians or quantum physicists to understand the secret working of God’s repeated incarnate presence on earth. For ultimately, this is your story and the only reason you as a single “drop” in the ocean of consciousness took birth in the first place. As the Avatar declared, “Everyone is first and no one is second.” Di 121
Meher Baba means “Compassionate Father” and the extraordinary data in these pages is but a small part of his legacy revealed in his unbounded compassion to humanity during his most recent life on earth. He was silent, voluntarily not speaking after July 10, 1925. For what he had to say to humanity could not be said in words, but only expressed in his voluminous Silence. In 1954 he gave the world a Universal Message, explaining among other things the reason for his Silence. This and another message, “The Word of Words,” are like heads and tails of a divine rare coin. They are followed by two other “Word” quotes:

The Universal Message
I have come not to teach but to awaken. Understand therefore that I lay down no precepts. Throughout eternity I have laid down principles and precepts, but mankind has ignored them. Man’s inability to live God’s words makes the Avatar’s teaching a mockery. Instead of practicing the compassion He taught, man has waged crusades in His name. Instead of living the humility, purity and truth of His words, man has given way to hatred, greed and violence.
Because man has been deaf to the principles and precepts laid down by God in the past, in this present Avataric Form I am observing Silence. You have asked for and been given enough words. It is now time to live them. To get nearer and nearer to God you have to get further and further away from “I,” “my,” “me” and “mine.” You have not to renounce anything but your own false self. It is a simple as that, though found to be almost impossible. It is possible for you to renounce your limited self by my Grace. I have come to release that Grace.
I repeat. I lay down no precepts. When I release the tide of Truth, which I’ve come to give, men’s daily lives will be the living precept. Words I’ve not spoken will come to life in them. I veil myself from man by his curtain of ignorance and manifest my Glory to a few. My present Avataric Form is the last Incarnation in this cycle of time; hence my Manifestation will be the greatest. When I break my Silence, the impact of my Love will be universal; all life in creation will know, feel and receive it, helping every individual to break himself free of his own bondage in his own way.
I am the Divine Beloved who loves you more than you can ever love yourself. The breaking of my silence will help you to help yourself in knowing your True Self. All this world confusion and chaos was inevitable and no one is to blame. What had to happen has happened; and what has to happen will happen. There was and is no way out except through my coming in your midst. I had to come and I have come. I am the Ancient One. 5486
The New Humanity
This new world-culture will emerge from an integral vision of Truth independent of existing traditions; not from the laborious process of selecting and compiling a patchwork of previously conserved values. Without negating the values of diverse traditions or having a mere patronizing tolerance for them, on the contrary it will express itself through active appreciation of the essentials of these diverse religions, cultures and true scientific discoveries.
The vast vision of the Truth cannot be limited by any of these – creed, dogma, sect or science; however, it will help men to transcend these limitations, not by blind and total denial of any value to these disciplines, but by discovering, accentuating, unfolding and developing such facets of the Truth as might have been hidden in them. T 228

The speed of consensus on the planet, whether personal, scientific, medical or geo-physical has increased exponentially in the last one hundred years, more than in the last five thousand years put together. Just absorb that fact. Until the mid-1800s, the primary sources of power were muscle and fire. In just a century, we went from the invention of the steam engine to splitting the atom and then into outer space. In 1800 it took weeks to get a letter across a country. It now takes milliseconds to get an email from anywhere across the globe.
Mankind’s giant leap in 1969, just a few months after Meher Baba finished his work on earth and dropped his physical form, was not simply the technical know-how to put a walking man on the moon. Perhaps even more so it was the unprecedented event of global unity at that very moment – however fleeting – when for the first time in known history, billions of people all over the world stood in singular unity, suspended in front of their TVs, radios or simply gathered together in town squares worldwide – in big cities and small.
They watched in breathless anticipation, focusing their hearts and minds as one-heart, one-mind, sending waves of love, support and God-speed to our astronaut brothers who were breaking the bonds of earth’s gravity to open up a New Age. In that moment there was no Muslim, no Jew, no Christian, but one heart and one mind, focused in awe on our mutual destiny as humanity. There was one voice crying out, “We did it!” meaning not the Americans, but humanity had physically transcended and gone beyond the earth.
Every once in a while you see that scene from the first moon-base, “One small step for man. . . .” And each time you see it you might fleetingly think, “Oh, that tired old clip.” But what it signifies isn’t what happened on the moon, but what happened on earth that day – the unprecedented global unity of all the hearts that beheld it.
For sure, that moment of global unity was transient. But it was a spiritual allegory for the deeper experience of unity that will be shared by all humanity in the coming age, or its remnants, should the catastrophic events long predicted actually come down upon us by 2069. But from where did this all this come? It’s clear that some enormous evolutionary impulse visited the planet in recent times, catalyzing entire processes of civilization.
What or Who could give us such an unprecedented push? The answer is so knee-slappingly evident, and yet in the face of it humanity is totally in the dark and unaware and will remain so until the latter third of the 21st century. By then, Meher Baba’s Manifestation will have taken place and everyone will come to know of it through experience. Meanwhile, humanity is kept on its toes with the sheer volume of news placed daily on its plate.
When those astronauts turned their camera around and photographed earth for the first time from our moon, humanity changed the way it looked upon this blue-green jewel we call home. Confucius’s “A picture is worth 1000 words” was never truer than on that day. That one photograph was more instrumental in understanding our place in the universe and how fragile life is than any other discovery made at any time in recent centuries. Still, here is how Meher Baba referred to even this glorious but “bogus news” of the outer illusory world.
However far man may fling himself into outer space, even if he were to succeed in reaching the furthermost object in the universe, man will not change. Wherever he goes, he will remain what he is. It is when man travels within himself that he experiences a metamorphosis of his self. It is this inward journeying that matters, for the infinite treasure – God – is within man and not to be found anywhere else outside of himself. When mind soars in pursuit of things conceived in space, it pursues emptiness. But when man dives deep within, he experiences the fullness of existence. [www.lordmeher.org p. 6216]
Despite quantum physics pointing us toward spiritual truths, we’ve not kept up with revelations pertaining to the inner world, given to us by present spiritual Masters. There are great discoveries in spiritual realities unveiled now, previously hidden and unknown in humanity’s past. One Infinite Intelligence manifests as Love Incarnate, repeatedly as the God-man in human form, fully unveiled as the Messiah, while fully veiled in and as you. How to grasp the meaning of that expression “in and as you?” Meher Baba put it this way:
"The Avatar is God, and God becomes man for all mankind and simultaneously God also becomes a sparrow for all sparrows in Creation, an ant for all ants, a pig for all pigs, a particle of dust for all dust in the Creation, a particle of air for all airs, etc., for each and every thing in the Creation.” This is not just poetry. When God incarnates as the Avatar, He literally becomes each of these things, conscious of Himself not only as an individual Divine-human being, but experiences Himself in and as everyone and everything. This is what is termed Universal Consciousnes.T
The five Perfect Masters effect the presentation of the Divinity of God into Illusion. Divinity pervades and presents Itself in innumerable forms – gross, subtle and mental. Thus, God mingles with mankind as man and with the world of ants as an ant, etc. But the world of man cannot perceive this, and simply says, “God has become man” remaining satisfied with this understanding in his own world of mankind. But something far deeper and pervasive is going on. [God Speaks p.252]
Before One became Two, There was No One but You. Making sure humanity understood this, in the early 1960s Meher Baba dictated to his close disciple, Bhau Kalchuri, a special prayer. Entitled You AloneExist. Composed of 56 couplets, it describes the all-pervading nature of God manifesting in creation. Baba said that one day this prayer would be said in households all over the world. Here are a few couplets:
"There is no one without You! You are manifest and unmanifest, as you alone exist. You are man. You are birds. You are fish and animals, for You alone exist. You are the moon and the stars, the dawn and the night, the sun and the light. You alone exist."

Steve Brown   September 3rd, 2009 4:25 am ET

Science can and does exist without religion. Just ask the Japanese.

em0tard   September 12th, 2009 9:54 pm ET

The big crunch may or may not happen but like they said it will probalby so far into the future that none of us will be alive and more than likely us humans will kill everything off anyways so we really wont have to worry.
Personally i think its exciting that we are trying to figure this out but at the same time dumb becuase we are going to cause fights and contrevercy over something that we have no controll over.
So what if the universe wants to come back and give us a giant hug at the same time killing everything that we know its not like we can stop the universe.

Mad Dog   September 15th, 2009 4:44 pm ET

Recent Hubble data collected over several years on the red shift of infared light was done to measure the expansion of the universe. T he amount of shift in the spectrum allows astronomers to calculate the rate of expansion. The analysis of this data however came to an unexpected conclusion. Some galaxies are indeed moving rapidly toward the " great attractor" probably a huge area of dark matter but others are stable and barely moving. It is described as a huge current or river in space where some galaxies are flowing toward an unknown destination and others are on the stable areas of the universe and watching them rush by. Now for the BIG Suprise. Out galaxy is riding the current and drifting by our neighbors at the reate of several millon miles an hour. Every day you wake up in a diffeerent location in the universe. Quite a ride, lets see where we go?

Elliott Roska   September 28th, 2009 2:18 pm ET

my personal theory may be the fact of assuming that although we think that black holes are more like abyssis than holes is ludicris to think so. right now the black holes may very well just be atom collecters that collect into single dense points in the universe similar to the one that started the big bang. eventually the one at the center of the universe will explode to a similar story of the universal beginning

Jnan R. Saha   October 1st, 2009 1:02 pm ET

One more item. There cannot be a Black Hole for the same reason I posted above. Its Infinity. Infinity is not a reality but Abstract Concept. If one says it is not a Hole but very dense that will make sense.

Jnan R. Saha   October 2nd, 2009 8:55 pm ET

As we reach out to learn more about the universe, we’re all coming to terms with our relationship to our home planet: Pollution, solutions, and challenges in the way we live – and what we may leave behind. New Gadgets, and new discoveries, from the lab to the edges of the Galaxy; and the crossroad where science, religion, money and politics collide.
========================================
How long does it to moderate a post?

Jon   October 6th, 2009 8:38 am ET

I belive that the greeks where t\right and that the universe always was and always will be. though i also think thats it can change.

Jnan R. Saha   October 7th, 2009 9:28 pm ET

One more item. There cannot be a Black Hole for the same reason I posted above. Its Infinity. Infinity is not a reality but Abstract Concept. If one says it is not a Hole but very dense that will make sense
=============================
The above is my second post. In the first post I described why Big Bang could not happen. Why was that post taken out? Let the Bloggers decide. There cannot be a singularity including the one from which Big Bang was thought to have happened. Nothing in the Universe could not have and cannot have infinite density.

Jnan R. Saha   October 9th, 2009 9:40 pm ET

I am not a Physicist but a Molecular Biologist. I do not understand the Mathematics of Theory of Relativity. Yet I insist that a Singularity could not and cannot exist. Singularity by definition has Infinite Density. Infinity is not a reality but an abstract concept. I request that Dr. Pawloski should have some input as initiator of this string and say why I am wrong.

Tim Thompson   October 12th, 2009 11:34 am ET

Nobody thinks a real singularity could really exist anyway, so there's no reason to get all worked up about it. The whole point of trying to find a quantum theory of gravity (string theory for instance) is to get around the singularities that crop up in the classical theory of general relativity.

However, there certainly are black holes, that much has been verified by observation. Black holes have "event horizons" but do not have any hard surface. That means the physics of what happens at the "surface" of a black hole is different than it is for anything else so they are observationally distinguishable from all other types of compact object. Astronomical observations have repeatedly confirmed the presence of event horizons and therefore the reality of black holes beyond a reasonable doubt.

But what happens inside the black hole cannot be distinguished by any observation. General relativity says "singularity" but that was never intended as a physical description of what really happens, rather only as an indication that what really happens is beyond the ability of general relativity to describe. Hence the desire to find a quantum theory of gravity, in order to understand what physically happens at the mathematical singularity of general relativity.

Ben   October 12th, 2009 11:35 pm ET

I believe the most accepted theory is this:
The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate due to a gradual strengthining of the expansion force. Therefore; the universe will continue to expand faster and faster as galexies fly away from one another. Eventually, the expansion force will become stong enough to tear galexies asunder. Given enough time even stars and planets will be ripped apart. And, given an almost unconcievable amount of time, probably googols of years, even atoms themselves will be torn apart into there elementary particals, seperated by vast quantities of space in a cold, dark, lifeless universe.
In short: The future is bleak.

babaelf   October 13th, 2009 9:24 am ET

In response to Ben's: THE FUTURE IS BLEAK... Inevitably when one reaches the limits of created space one is forced to recognize that the Universe is nothing but the mind's dream. The bleakness is only in the dream. And here one needs to recognize qualities of spirit that are totally taken for granted. For example, how is it that the human eye, so tiny and seemingly insignificant can take in the vast regions and reaches of space, and wen supplemented with technology can go the the very limits of the Universe. When you awake from your state of asleep-dreaming into your awake dream state you know that last night's asleep-dreaming “was” only a dream. When you awaken from your awake-dreaming you will know that you were the sole creator of both the dreams, and all the people, objects and situations contained in them – that they existed only in you and were for “no one but you” and were nothing but dream experiences of your own dreaming; and that you alone have Real Existence. When real light appears, this darkness which you think is light disappears.
In all states and under all circumstances, whether you’re dreaming dreams in sleep, dreaming the dream of life on earth or the farthest reaches of space, temporarily dreaming the acutely experienced dream-states of hell or heaven after leaving the gross body, or dreaming the real dreams in the higher spiritual planes, essentially you always remain the same. One way or another, everything and everyone represents God in some state of consciousness.
But the God-Man (Avatar, Buddha, Christ, Rasool) for those who can accept such an unscientific notion, represents God in every way, in everything and every-where, in one and all of the states of consciousness, manifest or latent. Hafiz, the great 14th century poet and Perfect Master who became God-realized, says, “A thousand times I have ascertained and found it to be true that the universe and the affairs of the universe are totally nothing into nothing...." ..

Jnan R. Saha   October 15th, 2009 10:56 pm ET

Dear Tim Thompson:
I have read your educated piece. I still maintain that I lack the knowledge of higher Mathematics to understand Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Only knowledge of Quantum Mechanics I had was when I studied Electronic configuration of Atoms. That the Electrons exist around Nucleus in Quantum Orbits! Only natural force that can crush those orbits is Gravity. I still maintain that there cannot be a “Black Hole” but very dense object with finite density. Some people have argued that “It is a hole, because it is not observable”. I maintain that it is not observable, if any Animate or Inanimate entity sees that “Hole” it will be last thing it sees. For example I calculated the radius of a 3 billion Sun Mass “Black Hole” would have a diameter less than 2000 miles. In order to see that object, one entity would be so close that it will be gobbled by that object. My calculations are not based on higher Mathematics but simple Arithmatic.
Kind regards,
Jnan R. Saha

We are all light   October 17th, 2009 12:22 am ET

The earth wobble on its axis every 25,920 years there is a physical and magnetic pole shift and every 13 thousand years there is a pole shift. when that happens everyones memory goes blank because the magnetic field around our bodies a gone

babaelf   October 17th, 2009 1:36 pm ET

As to what WE ART ALL LIGHT has suggested, the ancient Sumerians left tablets explaining about the last pole shift approximately 13,000 years ago at the time of Ziusudra, also known in Genesis as Noah. That shift coincided with the slipping of of the Antarctic ice cap at the end of the last ice-age. Polar shifts undoubtedly cause enormous tsunamis that keep oscillating like the sound waves of a huge cathedral bell....maybe even enormous tide surges lasting the proverbial 40 days.... babaelf

Jnan R. Saha   October 19th, 2009 8:41 pm ET

There is story in Genesis about Noah when “God” warned him about Big Flood asked him to build an Ark and take 2 of each Species to re-populate the Earth. An exactly similar story appears in Ancient Indian Scriptures when “God” asked King Manu the same. All available information suggests that a Glacier broke and blocked the flow of a river and a huge lake formed behind that Glacier. It was known to “Educated” people at the time that Glacier would melt and cause a huge flood.

Sometime in the past, around the same time a River named Saraswati that kept present day Indian Desert Thar green dried up. The story of Big Flood could be in India or where the Genesis said happened. It could not flood Mount Ararat upstream where some researchers found “Noa’s Ark”.

Reverend James   November 27th, 2009 7:12 pm ET

I find it interesting that so many people have the answer to the creation and destruction of the universe when Humans can't even figure how to stop killing each other. All this "so called" intelligence can't seem to understand how to even feed itself properly and is dependent upon "drugs" just to function(or dysfunction) on a daily basis. I used to think I was really smart until I realized I was part of an insane, self-destructive, ignorant and arrogant species. May I suggest we take care of ourselves and each other and let God handle the Universe. Just a thought.

genesis continuous   November 30th, 2009 5:10 pm ET

Here, here, Reverend. Ye gods and little fishes, Big Bang is just a theory. Big crunch another. Expanding, yes, I agree, but there's stuff coming in from outside, so lets try to accept that the universe constantly recycles and has always existed; galaxies come and go; new stars are born; have families of planets, moons and bits and bobs; a star will burn out and it's mass is being reused. Conservation rules. We know these things so why complicate it.

The universe is full of beginnings and ends, but what is most important is to realise that our technology only allows us to see a boundary, which quite incredibly is 13.7 billion light-years away in all directions – Funny that..

But Reverend, I agree with you to a point, but all the violence and aggression in the world is motivated by beliefs, and the greedy and cruel ones thrive as a result.

Look at the second world war. The allies knew where Hitler's bunker was but did they drop bombs on it? No Hitler knew where the British houses of Parliament where and Buckingham Palace were, but did he bomb them? No. So how many innocent people died because their targets were not the centers of leadership?

I have wondered too, why 9/11 was not aimed at Wall Street and the White House.

David

JoeDC   November 30th, 2009 7:45 pm ET

Wow Reverend James, you're right. A lot of people do think* they have the answer to the "Creation" and "Destruction" of the universe. We call them Theists, thanks for being a part of the ignorant masses.
The rest of us, however, might like to manage to survive as a species, beyond the scope of this planet's capacity to support our breeding and consumptive habits. The idea that we can either stop killing each other, or explore the universe, is both shortsighted and suicidal, we have no real choice but to do both.

*They certainly do not know, as much as they would like the rest of us to believe that they do, and may in fact believe themselves in possession of such knowledge.

Reverend James   December 1st, 2009 12:56 pm ET

JoeDC-Quantum mechanics (scientists) when confronted with their inability to explain molecules being in two places simultaneously, among other extraordinary findings proclaimed- "The only explanation is that there is some universal intelligence, source or God that is responsible for creating this and other universes"- Your statement "The idea that we can either stop killing each other, or explore the universe, is both shortsighted and suicidal, we have no real choice but to do both." is ridiculous on it's face.
We always have a choice, we just don't have the courage to make the choices that serve us well. BTW- "Reverend James" is just a screen name-I didn't mean to mislead and I apologize if it offended anyone. I do not believe in "organized" religion which is "man made" to control the ignorant masses. History teaches us that man can live in harmony with the planet. I think it's reasonable to take stock of what the collective "we" have done to make a mess out our beautiful world. I do applaud you're desire to survive as a species. Maybe we can start with that common ground to cooperate instead of compete. I have a deep love for mankind- even those that disagree with me!

samantha   March 22nd, 2010 2:34 pm ET

how do u say geha?lol do u say it:gah-hay?pwz send to my email so i can get the answer that is sum nice info.(:

stephen   April 8th, 2010 2:00 pm ET

the big crunch will happen because , yes we are mover faster away from the center of the universe (B) but thats the (A) force of the initial big band , but gravity (c) being the strongest force in the universe so ...

swing ball scenario , you hit the ball (ball being galaxy's) hard and it spins fast and faraway ( force (A) ) from the center pole (B) , dont forget the string !!! (C) ,but as it slows down it is drawn back into the center .

it will be in a cicular or elliptical orbit as the galaxy's join (creating more gravity ( law of physics mass will attract mass ) in-till there are 2 super galaxy's or 2 forms of immense energy spinning and shrinking until there are to small body's eventually until they collide restarting the universe as we know it .

please any comment because i want to know if it is right or wrong

ellie woodland   April 16th, 2010 5:34 pm ET

i belive that yes there will be a big cruntch also the universe will have to syop expanding because if not......that would be weird to never end in that there is no way we would reach that ..................going to read my manga! mangafox.com rules!

Jnan R. Saha   April 23rd, 2010 2:41 pm ET

There is an article in SCIAM October, 09 about Black Stars not Holes. I have been arguing for more than a decade that a Black Hole is impossibility because it means INFINITY a real possibility. When Massive Stars explode as Super Nova it results in a Neutron Star with density around 2**17 Grams per Cubic Centimeter. Every Galaxy interior contain extremely Massive such objects. I read about Black Holes (Black Stars) having mass of 3 billion Suns. Such objects are swallowing Stars probably for Breakfast Lunch and Dinner and getting fatter every day. I guess when two such objects collide with masses of 50 billion or more stars, everything they contain broken to probably elementary Particles and extremely bright radiation emanates from such collisions. Anything within thousands or millions of light years would be annihilated and New Galaxy with new Stars will be born. I think instead of Big Crunch, Galaxies get renewed every few billion years. Anyway I cannot explain or guess how the Universe got started (born). It could not happen as predicted by Theory of Relativity, because of “INFINITY” problem.as I posted earlier.
This piece was posted earlier but taken out. If its taken out again I want to know why.

Joni   August 27th, 2010 5:21 am ET

Okay...I am a novice with just an absorbing interest in astronomy. And I was watching through the wormhole. So forgive me if my questions are ignorant. :)
Could the big bang and a possible big crunch just be an ongoing process that just keeps happening over and over?
What kind of matter would be formed from a big crunch?...I was under the impression that newer parts of the universe were made from denser and different materials then the older parts.

Andrew MacEwen   September 26th, 2010 10:29 pm ET

Babaelf, the belief you put forth in your opening sentence is interesting and credible, but you should avoid the arrogance of referring to it as a "self-evident fact." You have a strange notion of what constitutes a fact.

Paul James Preston   October 13th, 2010 7:45 pm ET

I greatly enjoyed babaelf's posts as I am also familiar with Meher Baba. Meher Baba may be the real deal, his words really hit home as his perspectives on psychology and humanities conflicts are spot on. His writings are truly beautiful and inspiring I recommend them to anyone interested in philosophy.

The flaw of modern science is the theory of materialism. The theory that the universe is a fundamentally material SUBSTANCE. The truth is the universe is PERCEPTION itself, indivisible and infinite. Science is actually working towards discovering this as materialism FAILS to explain sciences latest discoveries without resorting to abstract metaphors and semantics, such as – space-time, super-strings, parallel dimensions, etc. Most importantly materialism has still failed to explain how experience\perception arisis out of substance (because it does not the thoery is wrong).

My advice to you is forget what you think you know and checkout Meher Baba with an open mind.

Babaelf I would like to have a discussion with you, throw me an email. dark_boarderx@hotmail.com

babaelf   October 13th, 2010 8:03 pm ET

To Andrew Mac Ewen: It wasn't my arrogance, it was the arrogance of the God-Man, Meher Baba whom I was merely quoting. There isn't a shred of original thinking from me in anything I posted here. It's all from revelations from one who truly knows and with which I am totally familiar. What I quoted was just a thread, behind which is an endless rope......

babaelf   October 13th, 2010 8:07 pm ET

OK, dark_boarderx....just sent you a nice email while I'm watching this incredible rescue effort in Chile....reminds me of when I watched a walking man on the moon and all the hearts worldwide that beheld it.....like today.......babaelf

Allegra Pawlowski   January 22nd, 2011 12:03 pm ET

Hi A Pawlowski-
My friends keep seeing your name on CNN.com and I thought I should reach out to see what your first name is as they keep thinking you are me!
Allegra

kerri   January 26th, 2011 9:24 am ET

Awesome photo guys! Keep taking pics!

Yazzi   January 26th, 2011 9:27 am ET

Can you guys try to get a picture of a super nova or an aurora? thanks!

William H. Depperman   February 26th, 2011 1:49 am ET

This update is added in order is to address a recent sophisticated yet simultaneously clumsy attempt to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Infinite Cycle of the Universe and to render confusion in a paper and book by Stephen Hawking crony, Robert Penrose, plus some political updating:

Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics

The Capitalist Dictatorship Deliberately Falsifies Basic Science!
Stephen Hawking, Michio Kaku, Wendy Freedman, Dennis
Overbye, Nichlas Wade, Brian Greene, etc. Are Exposed as Liars!
Self-Described Neo-Creationists Hawking and Kaku Are
Leading a Takeover Attempt of Theoretical Astrophysics!

Today basic medicine, science including climatology, astrophysics and even both Einstein’s Special Theory and General Theory of Relativity are brazenly and routinely falsified at the direction of genuinely Fascist elements for political/religious reasons. These scientifically fabricated and bizarre distortions are mixed in with some actual science and are passed off as “the new science” in exhaustive mesmerizing falsifications lasting for hours on NOVA, FRONTLINE, National Geographic Channel, CUNY TV, “Discovery Channel” and even the so-called “History Channel.” There is also a simultaneous attempt to create a sense of panic in order to help generate the Mass Psychology of Crisis based on falsely claimed imminent threats from space from rogue asteroids to Stephen Hawking’s alarmist claim of future invasions by inevitably hostile space aliens. See section below on UFOs and Extraterrestrial Life. In addition, the above-mentioned so-called “cosmologists” publish an endless stream of books, videos and magazine and newspaper articles, not to mention the new textbooks, to try to popularize their fiction and pass it off as good coin. The media, including the science media is simply a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence agency,” an actual army of legions of professional liars in every area of politics and academic discipline and includes even so-called “comedians” working in service to the capitalist dictatorship of millionaires and billionaires. The U.S. media is very similar to Blackwater, Dyncorp, Custer Battles and Triple Canopy, etc. the armed military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, except that the media has always been privatized. Can you say Total Brainwash of the youth? Not to mention the adult population! Note that Stephen Hawking and Michio Kaku, who are leading the takeover attempt of theoretical astrophysics and “cosmology,” now both openly describe themselves as neo-creationist/”intelligent design” advocates and are campaigning through their statements to make neo-creationism the default belief taught in schools, colleges and universities! (See below.) Although Hawking simultaneously tries to deny this all his statements are contrived to lead to the same “conclusion.” The title and contents of Hawking’s book: “The Grand Design” is an example.

There is also a maximal attempt to confuse the masses in order to keep them susceptible to the constant stream of lies originating from NASA and the U.S. government. These lies include but are not limited to multiple false theories of the origin of life which include: 1.) so-called “panspermia,” 2.) evolution of life from submarine vents and now preposterously 3.) hypothetical civilizations based on arsenic (!) not phosphorus, all of which are fully disproved below. NASA first threatened to ram through a revisit of the Moon and a Mars mission before Obama under some public pressure temporarily cancelled the Moon and Mars ventures and made asteroids the first priority in order to lay the groundwork for an asteroid fear campaign to help reinforce the Mass Psychology of Crisis partially achieved by the “War on Terror,” complete with multiple U.S.-government-assisted and/or instigated mass provocations. U.S. “intelligence” has increased the number of these provocations in order to manipulate support for the Final Stage of Capitalism: Permanent War and State Terrorism! See below. There is also no possibility that a manned trip to Mars would ever return. Rocketry is a primitive form of space travel and there is no acknowledged attempt of efforts to develop the nuclear powered electromagnetic anti-gravity engine used by so-called UFOs, which are documented to have visited the Earth for Millennia. Such “space missions” along with “Supply-Side Economics” and the 4.7 trillion bank bailouts (!), are another fraudulent pretext to divert money from social spending and to decrease the U.S. living standard in accordance with Globalism, while trying simultaneously to try to boost U.S. patriotism from its nadir. The widespread academic opposition to these far-ranging falsifications of science in order to manipulate the public consciousness is never given equal time! We demand and will take some time to refute the U.S.-led capitalist dictatorship’s lies. The Capitalist Dictatorship’s Attempt to Falsify the Age of the Universe to Help Provide False Belief in “god” The capitalists have tried to falsify the actual age of the Universe and the infinite cycle of a Big Bang followed by a Big Crunch, meaning a closed rather than an open Universe, because the reality of a closed Universe does not fit with the religious brainwash of a single creation and belief in a supernatural fictitious “god.” (The statecraft of capitalism’s alliance with religion and belief in “god” and other superstition is exposed further below.) The reality is that the process of contraction of the Universe began soon after the Big Bang, which began the process of expansion. The process of contraction began with the first condensations of gas after the Big Bang. At first the process of expansion was dominant, but the processes of expansion and contraction exist simultaneously from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and all galactic matter is finally drawn into Supermassive Black Holes, which today form the centers of all spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies in the process of becoming spiral galaxies. These Supermassive Black Holes, which are growing larger continuously, finally link up all existing matter of the Universe at one spot, one huge super-maximal Black Hole known as the Singularity in the Big Crunch, at which time Critical Mass in the true and ultimate sense is reached for another Big Bang Cycle and the beginning of another Universe. This analysis clearly and conclusively demonstrates that THERE WAS NO “MOMENT OF CREATION” because all the matter for this Universe already existed in its pure nuclear form in the Singularity from a previous Big Crunch which preceded the Big Bang which began our present Universe. And the origin of matter is PROVED to be an unknowable. (See below.) This is the ONLY explanation which fits the facts! See below for comment on Roger Penrose and his recently published paper and book where he invents a highly contrived but easily disproved counter “theory” to the Big Bang Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe in order to try to discredit the cyclic nature of the Universe. Ninety-five Percent of Matter in the Universe Exists in the Form of Energy According To Einstein’s Formula E=mc2! Black Holes Completely Reverse that Relationship and Solve the Equation for Mass: m=E/c2 thus Supplying the so-called “Missing Mass”! The critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity, which predicted Black Holes. Neutrinos are now known to have mass which may be sufficient to supply the supposed “missing mass.” (See below.) But probably even more significant is the recent paper in Science, November 21, 2008, (Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127), which shows that 95% of matter in the Universe exists in the form of energy according to Einstein’s formula E=mc2. This relationship would reverse in a Black Hole and the so-called “missing mass” would gradually appear as the contraction of the Universe allowed the energy-mass relationship to shift so that in a practical and real sense Einstein’s formula would be solved for mass: m=E/c2. Though the authors of the paper fail to draw this conclusion that is the inescapable significance of those papers. See below. The fact that the expansion and contraction of the Universe occur simultaneously is one more example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, the Second Law of Dialectical and Historical Materialism and demonstrates the correctness of the scientific philosophy of Dialectical and Historical Materialism, as opposed to the false philosophies of idealism and metaphysics, which are the only philosophies permitted to be seriously taught in U.S. colleges and universities, and which form the underlying basis for all phony “cosmological” theory! See further below! Black Holes Rotate on an Axis and Have Mass and a Size, which Can Be Calculated! In addition, in the Big Crunch matter most certainly does NOT collapse to “less than the size of a single molecule,” a totally ridiculous assertion by the so-called “string theorists” (see below) designed to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe. The Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is 15 million miles in diameter—not “the size of a single molecule”! Black Holes are formed exclusively of condensed nuclear material; protons and neutrons (composed of quarks) and electrons (composed of leptons) devoid of their orbits and all motion, all collapsed together. The end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “Singularity.” The size of the final “Singularity” which forms prior to the Big Bang would thus be quite large because it must contain all the nuclear material in the entire Universe. All Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole. See above cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. Note that while some of the information provided below may appear to be somewhat technical it is necessary for any subsequent challenges which might be made of this dialectical and historical materialist analysis. An educated reader should be able to understand most of it and follow for the most part the explanations, which have in turn vast political implications. A few key references are provided and the reader can research the area independently. Black Holes have mass and size just as neutron stars (pulsars) also have mass!! All Black Holes, both Stellar Black Holes and Supermassive Black Holes (the result of combination of millions of solar masses) which form the center of evolving elliptical galaxies and all spiral galaxies, also rotate extremely rapidly just like neutron stars, some of which are estimated to be only 8 to 20 miles in diameter, and rotate in 1.4 milliseconds to 30 seconds! Black Holes rotate as fast or faster. All stars rotate on a central axis to some degree due to the angular momentum of gas approaching the center of the proto-star prior to the ignition of hydrogen fusion. In other words the gravitational collapse of gas in star formation is not uniform just as its opposite, an explosion such as the Big Bang is not uniform. When the radius of the star is reduced drastically in stellar collapse the angular momentum remains the same but the momentum of inertia is sharply reduced. The standard example is that of a figure skater spinning with outstretched arms who speeds up by pulling in his/her arms. Black Holes are formed from the collapse of the largest Blue Giant stars 5 to 20 or more solar masses. Neutron stars are formed from the explosion of stars with 1.35 to 2.1 solar masses in a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova explosion. The rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes is in fact the reason Spiral Galaxies exist in the flattened disk form they do with spiral arms—because of the huge gravitational force exerted by the rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes which form their galactic centers! As mentioned this fact is entirely covered up and denied by the phony NASA “scientists” on television, e.g., National Geographic TV. As the rotating Supermassive Black Hole in the galactic center gradually increases in size through accumulation/accretion of more stellar material and gas, the early elliptical galaxies, in the process of becoming a spiral galaxies, begin to flatten due to the rapid rotation of the Supermassive Black Hole in their center which causes the flattening. It should also be noted that as would be expected there exist a high number of stellar black holes in the galactic center drawn by their strong gravitational fields on their way to join the central Supermassive Black Hole. According to observations of the Chandra X-Ray Telescope released in a July 16, 2005 report there are 10,000 stellar black holes along with numerous neutron stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy, officially designated Sagittarius A (SGR A)! The Supermassive Black Hole at the center of the Milky Way has a mass of 3.7 million solar masses. The largest known Supermassive Black Hole in the OJ 287 Quasar contains 18 billion solar masses! The spiral arms comprised of outlying stars are formed by the combination of the gravitational force coming from the rapidly rotating galactic center and the relative gravitational attraction of one outlying star to another based on their actual distances from one another. As the outlying stars approach neighboring stars due to gravity this leaves other areas where stars are much less concentrated giving rise to the appearance of usually 2 major spiral arms originating from each end of the central bar often found in the galactic center, as well as several minor spiral arms, all of which are actually in the process of being gradually drawn inexorably toward the galactic center. The gravitational force of the Black Hole, the mass of which is steadily increasing, gradually overcomes the outward centrifugal force caused by its rapid rotation. Central bars form after the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a large spiral galaxy reaches a certain size and are therefore found more prevalently in more massive galaxies where the required mass is reached sooner. Central bars form when stellar orbits in a spiral galaxy become unstable and deviate from a circular path. The tiny elongations in the stars' orbits grow and become locked into place, forming a bar. The bar becomes even stronger as it locks more and more of these elongated orbits into place. Eventually a high fraction of the stars in the galaxy's inner region join the bar. The galactic center thus attracts both gas and stars. This concentration of gas at the center of spiral galaxies does result in the formation of new stars but does not represent the primary or original source of star formation, which occurs in the beginning of formation of galaxies from gravitational condensation and collapse of primordial gas clouds. The central bars draw a large amount of gas towards the galactic center, fueling this new star formation, building central bulges of stars, and feeding the Supermassive central Black Hole. The formation of a bar may be one of the last stages in the evolution of a spiral galaxy prior to its eventual total collapse entirely into its central Supermassive Black Hole. Information Overload by NASA and U.S. Government Propagandists is used to Distract Focus Away from the Significance and Central Role Black Holes Play in the Process Of Contraction of the Universe which Finally Becomes Dominant in the Big Crunch! In the interest of accuracy it is also important to mention that this information is being misused by NASA and other U.S. government propagandists to try to distract from and obscure the significance of black holes and the central role black holes play in the process of contraction of the Universe, which ultimately becomes dominant over the simultaneous process of expansion. First, it is a fact that matter generally enters a black hole through a combination of both gravitation and magnetism. Matter in the accretion disk, which spins around the black hole, can only enter the black hole after it loses its angular momentum. The inertia of the material in the accretion disk keeps it spiraling in a disk rather than falling straight into the black hole. The inertia in turn is due to the mass of the material in the disc and the gravitational field caused by the extremely rapid rotation of the black hole itself. An accretion disc is a rotating disk of gas, dust and other matter that may form around any of a variety of stars or other massive objects from protostars to white dwarfs to neutron stars to stellar black holes and Supermassive Black Holes and even quasars (see below). While the accretion disc of a young star or protostar usually contains dust which later consolidates or accretes to form planets and other objects, the accretion disk of a black hole, which may also contain stars, feeds matter directly into the black hole. According to a report in the July 22, 2006 Nature, and another 2008 paper by F. Casse Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124020 (9pp) confirming the 1973 theory of Starobinsky and Churilov, the spinning gas in an accretion disc generates its own magnetic field which powers a wind of charged particles directed away from the black hole. The wind of charged particles transfers angular momentum from the inner regions of the disk outward in a twin jet phenomenon perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk allowing angular momentum to be conserved, meaning to remain balanced or constant. This transfer of angular momentum outward slows down the spinning gas near the center, allowing gravitation to draw matter into the black hole. The magnetic field also causes turbulence and friction to build up within the disk. The friction heats up the gas to millions of degrees, causing it to glow brilliantly in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. In Supermassive Black Holes large jets of plasma flow away from the accretion disc perpendicular to its center at almost the speed of light. These jets of plasma travel outward along the magnetic field lines which are twisted by the rotating accretion disk. It should be noted that the material which flows outward in the jets represents only a tiny amount of material extracted from the accretion disk. (Plasma, which is found in the accretion disk closest to the black hole, is a partially ionized gas, where a certain proportion of electrons are free, not being bound to atoms or molecules, unlike the gas form of matter. This permits electrical conduction of magnetic fields. Plasma is considered the fourth state of matter in addition to solid, gas and liquid. Redshift Measurement of Quasars puts The Age of the Universe at 28 Billion Years! The process where matter enters a black hole from its accretion disk may be greatly expanded during the formation of quasars where a Supermassive Black Hole at a galactic Center accretes a huge amount of matter in the order of billions of stars. When two black holes combine or a stellar black hole enters a Supermassive Black Hole in a galactic center the process causes the emission of radio waves and even visible light. When hundreds of millions to billions of stars and enormous amounts of gas first combine to create a Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a galaxy the energy released is exponentially increased and is known as a quasar. In a quasar this radiation is emitted across the entire spectrum almost equally, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. Quasars are the most visibly luminous objects in the Universe and are also the strongest energy source in the Universe. A quasar is simply an accelerated process of formation of a Supermassive Black Hole in an early galaxy. The release of gravitational energy by matter falling towards a massive black hole in the formation of a quasar is the only process known that can produce such high power continuously, energy far greater than the fusion process which powers stars. Quasars easily outshine their host galaxies. (The light we see is from the huge superheated accretion disk, which is greatly enlarged due to the high density of matter in such galaxies. Stellar explosions such as Supernovas and gamma-ray bursts can create the same level of energy, but only for a few minutes. Gamma ray bursts are generated by hypernova, which are simply very large supernova, the collapse of a stars with masses 100 to 200 times that of the sun. Contrary to the lies designed to create confusion, which appear on the National Geographic so-called Discovery Channel “How the Universe Works” programs, not all early galaxies possessed enough mass to produce a quasar. There is no evidence for example, that the Milky Way Galaxy, as claimed by Micho Kaku & Co. was a quasar! The Supermassive Black Hole at its center is far too small! And the mass extinction on Earth 440-450 million years ago was undoubtedly NOT caused by a gamma ray burst from a hypernova, but from the continental drift of a large landmass (Gondwana) into the south polar region causing a global temperature drop, glaciation and lowering of sea level which destroyed 60% of habitats around the continental shelves at a time when all life was confined to the seas and oceans. Evidence documenting this was found in deposits in the Sahara Desert. All observed quasar spectra have red shifts between 0.06 and 6.5. Applying Hubble's law to these red shifts, it can be shown that they are between 780 million and 28 billion light-years away, a measurement which is NOT due to gravitational lensing, although this has been reported for some extremely bright quasars. This is proof that the Universe itself is at least 28 billion years old! So the most recent “estimates” of the Hubble Constant and the actual age of the Universe by NASA, Wendy Freedman and company and the media (a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence community”) are obviously TOTALLY FALSE! (See below.) The process of quasar formation occurred regularly in the early Universe in the formation of galaxies with huge densely concentrated gas and stars. It should be obvious that the first galaxies to form in the Universe generally contained the highest volume and concentration of gas, which in turn created the highest concentration and densities of stars. The Supermassive Black Holes at the center of those early galaxies became quasars. Galaxies without such high densities of matter develop more along the lines of our own Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda, for example. Formation of galaxies is still occurring but generally they do not become quasars because the volume and density of gas is insufficient. An exception is 3C 273 in the constellation Virgo which is only 33 light years away with a luminosity equal to 2 trillion times that of our sun or about 100 times the total light of the Milky Way. Their discovery by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against the totally discredited steady state theory of Fred Hoyle, and in favor of the Big Bang Theory. Blazers, incidentally are the same as quasars but have their perpendicular jets in direct alignment with our galaxy, while quasars have their jets pointed away in another direction. As part of the escalating campaign of Big Lies, in March 2009 NASA made the totally disingenuous statement on a National Geographic Channel so-called “Naked Science” show that “while black holes are associated with galaxies we (who we?) do not yet know what that relationship is!” (!) And on May 17, 2010, Michelle Thaler of NASA disingenuously stated: “We do not know which comes first the galaxy or the Black Hole” (!) and further falsely stated that when 2 spiral galaxies collide the result is an elliptical galaxy “which does not spin!” This is another Big Lie and demonstrates a very systematized structure of lies. The truth is that the elliptical galaxy in this case is only a temporary structure. The Black Holes, which drove the 2 colliding spiral galaxies, combine and a larger spiral galaxy is formed. The motive for that feigned ignorance/Big Lie by the misnamed “intelligence community” is to try to obscure the documented reality that the matter of all galaxies is entering black holes as part of the ongoing contraction of the Universe, which begins shortly after the Big Bang and takes places simultaneously with the process of expansion and finally becomes dominant. As explained herein expansion of the Universe has slowed down enormously since the Big Bang and will be overtaken by the process of contraction until all mass in the Universe has again entered the final Black Hole, the so-called final Singularity in the Big Crunch. At that point there will be another Big Bang and another Universe will begin. In addition, NASA and other government propagandists have attempted to overemphasize the accretion disk/jet phenomenon and the huge energy produced as matter enters a black hole or quasar, almost to make it appear that black holes and quasars are “expelling” matter as much as drawing it in, virtually standing black holes on their head and falsely ascribing all sorts of false “observations” to black holes, in order to divert focus from the primary role of black holes as the mechanism or engine of contraction of the Universe and the beginning of the Big Crunch! One example is the false claim by the fraudster, James Geach, hyped in the July 7, 2009 New York Times by the determined “intelligence community” propagandist Dennis Overbye, that black holes fueled so-called Lyman alpha “blobs,” glowing clouds of gas in the early universe. But that lie was immediately refuted with the obvious explanation that cold gas streaming into a protogalaxy would heat up and glow from the gravitational energy alone! (See: “Lyman Alpha Blobs as an Observational Signature of Cold Accretion Streams into Galaxies” by Mark Dijkstra and Abraham Loeb, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, June 5, 2009.) These fraudulent NASA/U.S. government propagandists hope that most viewers know absolutely nothing and will believe virtually anything that they are told by someone claiming to be a “scientist” or “professor” and that most people will not do their own research, or will remain at least confused and vulnerable to their next bizarre fantastical claim. That is why the information which appears here should be forwarded by email and networked in every possible way nationally and internationally in order to counter the U.S. capitalist dictatorship’s Big Lies. The objective of the capitalist dictatorship is to render the population more susceptible to their lies in every area including politics and economics, which also have little to no basis in reality. The capitalist dictatorship also resorts to the come on of “naked science” in order to try to sex-up their Big Lie propaganda in theoretical astrophysics, while simultaneously presenting some truthful “Naked Science” reports in other areas and in other National Geographic programs in order to help their Big Lies blend in. In response to the heavy push on the so-called “History Channel,” etc. it should be noted that the Theory of the Big Bang was first proposed by Georges-Henri Lemaître, who had both a PhD in physics and was an ordained priest. Lemaître studied at the University of Leuven, the University of Cambridge, Harvard and MIT. The little read report was first published in 1927 in the Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles (Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels) and later in Nature: G. Lemaître, The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory, Nature” 127 (1931), n. 3210, pp. 706. Lemaître called it “the hypothesis of Primeval Atom” and also referred to it as "the Cosmic Egg exploding at the moment of the creation," with the word “creation” obviously reflecting his religious bias. As explained above the Universe did not originate from a single point less than the size of a single molecule as falsely proposed by the string theorists, who now are pushing Lemaître. As explained above the end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “Singularity.” As mentioned all Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole according to m=E/c2, Einstein’s formula from the Special Theory solved for mass. See cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. The Singularity contains the combined mass of all nuclear material from all stars and gas in the Universe. The designation: “Big Bang Theory” first derived from a derogatory reference to the theory of an expanding Universe by Fred Hoyle on the BBC in March 1949 over 20 years after it was first proposed. The truth as explained above and herein is that the processes of expansion and contraction of the Universe coexist from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and there is a Big Crunch followed by another Big Bang and formation of another Universe. It is a fact that Lemaître applied Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to Cosmology, but was NOT a spearhead of religion supposedly leading physics as Lemaître is presently falsely being portrayed on the so-called “History Channel.” Lemaître also preceded Edwin Hubble in deriving what became known as Hubble’s Law and even calculated the Hubble Constant but was not able to prove the linear relation which Hubble did in 1929. Lemaître has rarely been given the credit he is due for first proposing the Big Bang Theory for 3 reasons: 1.) The theory of an expanding Universe was opposed at the time he first proposed it by Einstein and others, 2.) For political-religious reasons explained herein the capitalist dictatorship has always opposed the Big Bang Theory because the natural logic of a Big Bang implies a Big Crunch and a cyclic nature of the Universe rather than a single creation which leaves the most room for “a creator” and 3.) U.S. nationalism/jingoism, where the U.S. capitalist dictatorship always prefers that whenever possible credit be given to an American. Edwin Hubble was an American lawyer. Although Lemaître had received numerous Belgian and international scientific honors only recently have the capitalists been pushing Lemaître in order to focus on the fact that he was a priest and that his theory speaks of a moment of “creation.” The so-called “History Channel” focuses on this language in an attempt to inject the sophisticated form of neo-creationism/intelligent design also espoused by Francis Collins, Obama’s new choice for head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). See below. Both Michio Kaku and Stephen Hawking have also now identified themselves as neo-creationists/”intelligent design” advocates! See below. The Hubble Constant is a calculation of the speed at which the Universe is expanding and is crucial in calculating the age of the Universe. Four methods have been used to estimate the Hubble Constant and age of the Universe. The most recent method employed by Allan R. Sandage, et al measures: 1.) the distances to Type 1a Supernovae explosions in distant galaxies and then 2.) confirms those measurements by comparing the relative luminosities of Cepheid variable stars as so-called “standard candles,” while Wendy Freedman’s NASA team uses Cepheid Variable stars alone, which is a lot less accurate. Freedman’s method especially is an easy method in which to either err or to deliberately falsify results as she and her NASA team have clearly done. (See below.) The typical errors in calculating the Hubble Constant include: 1.) “the universal, yet unjustified Period-Luminosity relation of Cepheid (variable stars), 2.) neglect of selection bias in magnitude-limited samples or 3.) the errors which are inherent to the adopted models, which cause most values of the Hubble Constant and corresponding estimates of the age of the Universe to be incorrect as explained in detail in the most comprehensive review which has yet been published, which also includes the Sandage team’s most recent calculation of the Hubble Constant to date of 62.3 +or–1.3, which is based on measurements to 279 galaxies: “The expansion field: the value of the Hubble Constant,” by G.A Tammann, A. Sandage and B. Reindl, Astron Astrophys Rev (2008), 8 July 2008, 15:289-331, DOI 10.1007/s00159-800-9912-y. ((Allan Sandage died on November 13, 2010.) This value of the Hubble Constant corresponds to an age of the Universe of approximately 13.7 billion years, which should be sufficient to permit the Big Crunch. However even this method of calculation of the Hubble Constant, which as exhaustively explained and documented by Allan Sandage et al, is fraught with potential errors cited above, which Sandage takes account of and systematically avoids. As mentioned above Wendy Freedman and Co. on the other hand use only Cepheid variable stars in their “calculations” and deliberately include faulty (fraudulent) data in their calculations as explained to this writer personally by Allan Sandage, therefore making Freedman & Co.’s method of determination of the Hubble Constant even easier to falsify. Such data is systematically excluded by Sandage, et al., as explained above. In response to the withering but suppressed critique by Sandage et al, known primarily only to other astrophysicists who follow these matters, Freedman has published a slew of pathetic papers addressing such topics as “correction of errors involving optical extragalactic background light (EBL), sampling-induced errors, magnitude errors, and random and optimal sampling,” etc. where she always comes up with ridiculously high (fraudulent) values for the Hubble Constant. Fraudulent data was necessary for Freedman & Co. to reinvent the entirely fictitious so-called “dark energy,” Einstein’s “Cosmological Constant,” (“My greatest blunder!” See below), which is declared to be “the opposite of gravity” and which has no scientific explanation whatsoever, but is falsely proffered as “the reason” the capitalist dictatorship and its media (and textbook) propagandists now falsely state that the expansion of the Universe has unexplainably “speeded up,” a “finding” which violates all previous findings not to mention all known rules of physics including the General Theory of Relativity! In other words this finding is totally invented, totally fabricated, a Big Lie to end all Big Lies! All designed to achieve the political-religious-propagandistic objective of a single “genesis.” See below. Legitimate opposing viewpoints are simply ignored and in practice not permitted to be heard! How jolly! Regarding the most recent results given above for the Hubble Constant, this writer would still prefer to accept Sandage’s previous calculation of 55 +or-5, which has been repeatedly established in papers from 1975, 1982, 1986, 1990 and 1995, although it may certainly be possible that the 62.3 +or-1.3 value is the most accurate and it is certainly can be argued that 55 +or-5 is not that far removed from the new figure. The reason for this caution is that Allan Sandage was 82 years old at publication and although he was 100% intellectually intact and in control of all of his faculties his name is listed second in the above paper indicating that he himself may not have collected the data used in the calculation giving 62.3 +or-1.3 for the Hubble Constant. This writer has not spoken or corresponded with the other members of his team, as this writer has, with Allan Sandage. Sandages’s team also often includes A. Saha who was not included in the above paper, so this writer can not rule out alteration of the raw data to give a falsely high Hubble Constant by certain personnel who might be bribed by the NASA forces in charge of the Key Project, which was set up determined to achieve a certain result come hell or high water. This issue is important enough to the capitalist dictatorship so that they would leave no stone unturned to tweak the results in their direction for reasons explained further below. In addition, we are reminded that the Redshift of some quasars actually puts the age of the Universe at 28 billion years! See above. Because of this fact and previous calculations of the age of the oldest stars which are in a similar range, it can not be ruled out that the computer program used for collecting light data from stars from modern telescopes in the “Key Project” may have been written in such a way as to deliberately give false values in order to increase the Hubble Constant and thereby reduce the age of the Universe as calculated by the “standard candles” method. The U.S. so-called “intelligence community” organized the so-called “Key Project” in order to cover up the cyclic nature of the Universe from Big Bang to Big Crunch. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was built primarily for the “Key Project.” This is an important point. The capitalist dictatorship chose Wendy Freedman to lead the project rather than the obvious choice, Allan Sandage, the legendary, most preeminent and world-renowned astrophysicist as well as the number one authority on the Hubble Constant along with his internationally renowned group of astrophysicist colleagues. See above. The reason was that Sandage’s studies up to that point had shown the Universe to be “between 14 and 18 billion years old, depending on what is assumed about the mass of the Universe.” This corresponds to a Hubble Constant, which he and colleagues had repeatedly calculated to be 55 +or-5 as cited above. An older age and smaller Hubble Constant, of course, would mean that the Universe contained easily enough matter to permit the Big Crunch, which is the key point the capitalist propagandists want to discredit because that would rule out a single creation and make the existence of a god, for which there is no scientific evidence whatsoever, even more unlikely! This is the actual statecraft behind the “Key Project.” (See further below.) Freedman’s initial claim that the Universe was only 8 billion years old was obviously fraudulent, as have been all of her subsequent “estimations.” All of Freedman’s estimations of the age of the Universe and the Hubble Constant have been designed to try to fraudulently invalidate (!) the Big Bang, the Big Crunch especially and the cyclic nature of the Universe in particular. The preposterous claim of an 8 billion year age is a direct attack on the Big Bang, which has been verified worldwide. In her initial unrestrained enthusiasm to falsify and misinterpret her own data (see above) Freedman forgot about the 1.) Red shift discovered by Edwin Hubble (see below) and 2.) the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is the residual effect of the Big Bang both of which exist as irrefutable evidence for the Big Bang origin of the Universe! In January 2003 Freedman was made the Director of the Carnegie Observatories located in Pasadena, California where Allan Sandage works thereby placing her above him as a maneuver to make her fraudulent estimates of the Hubble Constant appear more authoritative in the public eye! Note that even AFTER the 1965 discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Penzias and Wilson and its confirmation by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in 1989 that its measurement produced a curve precisely matching a Planck curve, which most scientists have accepted as proof that the radiation is indeed from the beginning of the universe, the capitalist dictatorship has still made efforts to continue to try to deny the existence of the Big Bang, even publishing books with 466 pages (!) attacking the Big Bang such as the 1991 rubbish: “The Big Bang Never Happened” (!) by the totally discredited Eric Lerner. Anyone using simple inductive reasoning would immediately begin to smell a rat! Since the capitalist dictatorship and its media have not been able to refute the Big Bang they have now focused all their efforts in trying to refute the Big Crunch. The capitalist dictatorship has a long history of political meddling and sabotage in virtually all fields of scientific and medical research and a history of using scientific advances against the masses in order to control them and also to reduce the population according to their own perceived needs, e.g. from Bio-warfare to Bio-fuels (through enforced starvation, falsely portrayed as seeking “energy independence” and “clean energy.”). NASA Propagandists Have Now Concocted the Fraudulent “theory of the Big Rip” In Order to Try to Counter the Reality of the Big Crunch and The Information which Appears Here now Found All Over the Internet! NASA in a new propaganda blitz using their standard Big Lie technique in order to try to refute the information, which appears here and all over the Internet, has pushed back hard with the totally discredited claims on the National Geographic Channel beginning in March 2009 that 1.) “dark matter” forms a supposed “filamentous superstructure” of the universe from the very beginning of the Big Bang until the present 2.) the fictitious “dark energy” will supposedly eventually “become so strong” that it will overcome all 4 primary forces including the strong force, which holds quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles, so that that the entire Universe will then supposedly “fly apart ripping apart galaxies, stars, planets and eventually every speck of matter in a fantastical end to time” in what the fraudulent propagandist Robert Caldwell describes as “the Big Rip.” This is also known as the theory of the flat universe. There is no “filamentous superstructure of the universe held together by dark matter.” And phantasmagorical images of galactic superclusters do NOT prove the existence of a “filamentous superstructure” and are simply a photographic effect due to the enormous luminosity of such dense accumulations of stars. As mentioned above the great wall of galaxies is not due to a “dark matter superstructure” but is simply due to the irregularities in the Big Bang explosion, which was not uniform as in any explosion. Such brainwash already appears in the astrophysics textbooks of the capitalist dictatorship! We recommend that it be exposed as a Big Lie whenever and wherever it is encountered. The capitalist cosmologists/propagandists have demonstrated that they can not coherently reply to any of the arguments advanced in this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics except through contrived, feigned ignorance, information overload and MORE totally outrageous, bizarre Big Lies, which require a religious-like faith (in the case of dark energy and dark matter, for example ) to actually believe them—their overall objective in the first place as explained here. So do not be intimidated by the doctoral degrees which they award themselves or the exalted positions held by these above-mentioned frauds in order to try to legitimize their lies and to try to control and monopolize this field as they try to do with all others. These false propagandists/ “cosmologists” keep up a truly relentless barrage of lies in the major media and even physics journals and on TV with a never ending stream of phantasmagoric images blending and cascading one into another to try to help prove their scripted Big Lies, for example, the existence of “dark matter,” which they laughably claim is so dominant that it forms the “superstructure of the universe” but which they supposedly have only been able to detect as “two tiny pulses of heat deposited over the course of two years...” New York Times, December 18, 2009, a frankly pathetic false “finding” which the article admits is “no proof” but “tantalizing” (?) an adjective carefully chosen to try to make it appear as if everyone were are all rooting to try to prove their Big Lie. The reality is that there is no “dark matter.” Claims on the National Geographic Discovery Channel and elsewhere in April-May 2010 that “gravitational lensing and cosmological expansion rates” have “confirmed” its existence are totally fabricated! Gravity, not dark matter, is responsible for ALL gravitational lensing and that is where it gets its name. And there is NO “large halo of unseen matter (an oxymoron!) extending beyond the visible stars.” But according to Michio Kaku & Co., “Dark matter is in a struggle with dark energy and dark energy wins in the end in the Big Rip!” Not a WORD about gravity! And according to Michio Kaku and the NASA propagandists, eventually stars will all simply “blink out and the universe will be dark…again!? The age of stars will be over!” Kaku just makes it up in a jumble as he goes along. Anything for his cause! But what is his cause? See below. It can also be predicted that the capitalist dictatorship will take over the science, if they have not already done so, of the new Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and highest energy particle accelerator in Geneva, Switzerland, when it finally goes on line in order to try to continue to concoct the existence of “dark matter” and “dark energy” as well as the “Higgs Boson,” the so-called “god particle,” which is reputed to be “the particle which may impart mass to all other particles after the Big Bang.” The Higgs Boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model in particle physics. At present there are NO known elementary scalar particles in nature. There are numerous Higgsless models, which do not depend on the Higgs Boson or Higgs Field. The top contender presently is the Three-Site Higgsless model. Whether or not the Higgs Boson exists or does not exist, its importance has been completely overstated in any case, in order that in the event of its discovery the media may falsely claim to have “proved” the existence of “god!” In any case, the Higgs Boson has absolutely nothing to do with “god” and no reputable physicist has ever made such a claim. The capitalist dictatorship is desperate and reeeediculous! So do not be intimidated by their Big Lies. Through brazen false arguments and bizarre false analogies these phony “cosmologists” who control the airways and media, have even attempted to up the ante and generate maximum confusion by trying to brainwash people into believing that the laws of physics and theoretical astrophysics, such as the Laws of Quantum Mechanics, the Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity, etc. are “not immutable” and are in a process of “constant evolution” supposedly like species of animals in Charles Darwin’s “The Evolution of Species.” The laws of physical science are thus directly compared to the evolution of species of animals! Einstein therefore supposedly only has “temporary relevance” giving virtually every kind of science fiction a basis in “reality.” (See: “Beyond Einstein,” Discover Magazine, April 2010). Einstein is also falsely quoted as believing in god: “learning to read the laws of physics is like reading the mind of god.” See comprehensive section on Einstein below. The author of the Discover Magazine article moreover disingenuously announces: “physicists should not spin any theories that require the existence of things such as multiverses, that cannot be disproved.” This carefully contrived statement implies that because “multiverses,” etc. supposedly cannot be disproved these fraudsters do not have to actually PROVE any piece of science fiction currently being passed off as “science.” They imply that is the duty of genuine theoretical physicists to disprove every false theory used to bombard the public domain by the misnamed, so-called “intelligence community” led by heavily hyped characters such as Michio Kaku or Stephen Hawking. The Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics disproves their primary concoctions and it is a rule of the Court that a witness caught in one lie in testimony does not merit any further credibility by the Jury. This is especially true in science where it is clear that, above all else, Kaku, & Co., are straining at the leash to inject confusion into basic physics and are forced to tell many lies in order to try to achieve their objectives. Their motives to create confusion are explained above. The title of the Discover Magazine article was incidentally borrowed from the very title of a 1987 book by “intelligence community” fraudster, Michio Kaku, wherein Kaku tried to popularize so-called “String Theory,” concocted in the effort to try to supplant Quantum Mechanics. See below. It should be noted that Kaku, who hides his specious, bogus so-called “Beyond Einstein science,” behind a phony slick and unctuously triumphal presentation, is equally at home passing off science fiction e.g. “parallel universes, time warps, time travel and the tenth dimension” as science as he is relentlessly fabricating false theories designed to compete with and supplant the natural laws of physics and to confuse as many people as possible behind a mantle of genuinely false knowledge. Based on only ONE non-cyclic Big Bang, Michio Kaku’s “String Theory” is thus a back door to Creationism! Michio Kaku now openly describes himself as a neo-creationist! See below. There is no such thing as “Dark Energy”. And there was no “inflationary epoch” in the Big Bang, which supposedly “caused the Universe to expand faster than the speed of light.” It did not! The so-called “Theory of Inflation” which attempts to supplant entirely the standard model of the Big Bang with “dark energy” AKA “vacuum energy” is also a total fraud! (See below) Nor has the Universe suddenly increased its rate of expansion as falsely claimed by these frauds as supposed “proof of its existence.” Just the opposite! The rate of expansion of the Universe has continued to slow since the Big Bang! All previous observations have indicated that is the case! While the Red Shifts of the most distant galaxies do indicate they are receding much more rapidly than closer galaxies this is because their light originated closer to the time of the Big Bang when the expansion rate was greater, but that is not the situation today. It should therefore be noted that although we may be able to receive light from galaxies which started its journey near the beginning of star formation and galactic formation, that light does not portray the reality at this point in time of the galaxy which was the source of that light. The reality is that today most of the Universe is undoubtedly relatively uniform in its development today except where, for example, there are huge clouds of gas from super novae explosions or where there are huge accumulations of matter such as the Great Wall of galaxies, the latter of which formed due to the irregularities which occurred in the Big Bang just as in any other explosion. In other words the light from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, would appear to an observer from the most distant galaxies to be receding at the same rate that their light is receding from our own galaxy! This should be a no-brainer but is rarely if ever mentioned. The only viewpoint which is ever mentioned is from the Earth as if it were the center of creation. Which it is not! The Universe is not open! Just like the Earth itself the spatial curvature of the Universe is NOT FLAT! It is CLOSED! In reality there are no “multiple universes,” which “pop out of Black Holes” or by any other explanation. A Universe arises ONLY from a Big Bang! Although mass is infinite in a Black Hole (see above), Critical Mass does not exist! Critical Mass is attained only in the Final Singularity, when all matter in the Universe comes together in one spot in the Big Crunch prior to the Big Bang. The point when Critical Mass is reached is the point when a Big Bang occurs! See above. This is why the Large Hadron Collider cannot reproduce either the Big Bang or even a Black Hole. The reason for this is that even a Black Hole can form only when a Blue Giant star of sufficient mass collapses. This can not occur in the Large Hadron Collidor no matter how high the energies attained or how “large” the collidor itself may be claimed to be!! Stephen Hawking’s claimed existence of “exploding miniature Black Holes,” which “permit particles to leak out in a quantum process” (!), eventually causing Black Holes to “EVAPORATE” (!), due to the pretentiously designated, so-called: “Hawking Evaporation,” or to “finally explode entirely” is based on fraudulent “String Theory” related mathematics and is baseless nonsense. Note that so-called “Hawking radiation” has NEVER BEEN OBSERVED and is ENTIRELY FICTITIOUS! Hawking’s wild claims were based on the fact that on a visit to the USSR in 1974 the Soviet physicist Alexander Starobinsky told Hawking that according to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, rotating black holes should create and emit particles. (!) Oh? But the truth is that in a Black Hole or “Singularity” the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and ALL LAWS OF PHYSICS DO NOT APPLY and DO NOT EVEN EXIST! Starobinsky WOULD have known that fundamental fact and it cannot be ruled out that in the middle of the Cold War he may have recognized that Hawking was such a nut-job ego tripper that he would fall for virtually anything in order to make a big splash for himself in physics. And the question immediately arises, if Starobinsky really thought he had made such a profound discovery why didn’t he come out with it himself? In any case there is no radiation whatsoever of any type emitted from any Black Hole itself! Nevertheless, such absurd and ridiculous claims are given credence in the media and given a heavy push on the phony “science” magazines and TV shows mentioned above and on websites which permit NO COMMENT! It was also announced on the highly discredited “Naked Science” National Geographic (Discovery) Channel with NO PROOF WHATSOEVER and with no legitimate counter-arguments ever permitted, the totally bizarre claim that Michio Kaku’s “String Theory” is “the best explanation of the origin of the Universe,” which it most certainly is NOT! On that program Hawking and “String Theorists” absurdly stated: “the Big Bang occurred when gravity weakened” (!) because “after the Big Bang gravity (supposedly) entered the 7 to 9 extra dimensions (in “String Theory”) and was weakened.” Duh! Such rubbish! (!) Finally, after presenting one concoction after another for almost an hour falsely dressed up as “science,” the April 20, 2010 “Naked Science” program (which is to be repeated!), apparently in a pathetic attempt to try to save face and keep some semblance of credibility among the growing majority of those who see through their lies, concluded with the unexpected disclaimer: “There is only one catch! There is no proof for any of this!” Right! But since then there have been no more disclaimers of these relentlessly pushed Big Lies! Parenthesis added. There is also no “time travel” in a practical sense either despite the phenomena of time dilation described in Einstein’s Special Theory and gravitational time dilation described in Einstein’s General Theory, which was actually confirmed in the Pound-Rebka experiment. And there are no “wormholes.” These fraudsters intone Einstein’s name by falsely claiming that there are “two valid solutions” to the General Theory of Relativity which contain “wormholes.” This is a Big Lie! Neither “solution” cited is actually valid! The first type falsely postulated, the “Schwarzchild wormhole,” which they also falsely designate with the label “Einstein-Rosen bridges” (!?), depends on a Black Hole, “which has no charge and no angular momentum!” But ALL Black Holes rotate and thus have angular momentum! (See above.) The second type, the so-called “traversable wormholes,” would require the existence of “exotic (non-baryonic) matter,” which does NOT exist and which itself would violate energy conditions specified in the General Theory and would require changing space-time topology and would require regions of negative energy, which also do not actually exist in the known Universe. At best this is all mathematical imaginings of those who want to be “the next Einstein.” Einstein himself realized that his later mathematical attempts to formulate a Grand Unified Theory were simply incorrect and were not leading in the right direction. In addition, there are no “strings.” “String Theory” is a mathematical attempt to try to refute, compete with and supplant, NOT EXPLAIN, the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the foundations of particle physics which were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein, etc.! See below for the most likely ready solution to the Grand Unified Theory. On July 22, 2010 on the so-called “History Channel” Michio Kaku brazenly also falsified the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle! That principle states simply that pairs of physical properties, such as position and momentum, cannot simultaneously be known to arbitrary precision. The more precisely one property is measured, the less precisely the other can be measured. In other words, the more you know the position of a particle, the less you can know about its velocity, and the more you know about the velocity of a particle, the less you can know about its instantaneous position. In his false presentation of “parallel universes,’ which also involved countless other falsifications of basic physics, Kaku stated that Heisenberg stated that one particle can be in two positions simultaneously! Heisenberg never ever even suggested that! Recent Findings Document that the Mass of the Universe Increases as Matter Enters a Black Hole and the Final Singularity! This Finding Totally Refutes Infinite Expansion of the Universe And “String Theory!” The Fact That Neutrinos Have Mass Also Provides Further Basis For the Big Crunch!” The false claim that there is supposedly insufficient matter in the Universe to permit the Big Crunch to take place is entirely refuted by 2 discoveries. Perhaps even more significant than the work on neutrinos discussed below is the paper published on November 21, 2008 in Science. More than 99% of the visible mass of the Universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Recent calculations of the mass of the nucleus found that matter, which is composed of protons and neutrons, which are in turn are composed of quarks held together with gluons by the strong force, normally exists as 95% energy, according to the formula from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity: E=mc2! This provides further confirmation for the Big Crunch! Why? The reason, not drawn as a conclusion by the authors of the paper, is that in a Black Hole and moreover in the final Black Hole, the “Singularity,” that relationship would be 100% reversed, with all matter existing in the form of mass: m=E/c2. The mass of the Universe would therefore increase according to these findings as matter enters a Black Hole as energy shifts to its mass equivalent! (Science, November 21, 2008, Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127. Obviously this is the precise opposite of what occurs in a nuclear explosion where matter is converted entirely to energy according to the equation E=mc2. On the other hand such tidbit reports as “Excess Particles From Space may Hint at Dark Matter,” (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1173) are only red herrings meant to titillate, to keep attention diverted away from focusing on key findings of genuine significance. There is no such thing as “dark matter.” In another important point, the Second Law of Thermodynamics does NOT prevent the Big Crunch because 1.) the energy of the Universe is entirely converted to mass in Black Holes and the Final Singularity in accordance with Einstein’s equation solved for mass: m=E/c2 and 2.) ALL laws of physics break down and do not apply in a Black Hole! There is no exception for the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The discovery that neutrinos have mass also provides a further basis for the Big Crunch. This fact was first reported on July 1, 1998 by a collaboration of 120 U.S. and Japanese physicists at the Neutrino 98 meeting in Takayama, Japan and submitted to Physical Review Letters. (By Super-Kamiokande Collaboration (Y. Fukuda et al.) Phys.Rev.Lett.81:1562-1567,1998.) Neutrinos have sufficient weight to allow the Big Crunch! The experiment measured the differences in mass of the three types of neutrinos to be 0.1 eV or greater. The group reported that the simplest interpretation of the solar and atmospheric results is that the heaviest neutrino has a mass of 0.1 eV. However, they reported that since oscillations between the 3 types of neutrinos depend only on the differences in mass it is possible that the masses of all three neutrinos are fully 1 eV or greater, but that it is the mass differences which are much smaller. (They allow for the “possibility.” How nice! They know that the majority of physicists do not simply automatically accept the interpretation which is first proffered.) This makes the most sense and is of course suppressed for political reasons. (See below.) If the mass of the neutrino is 1 eV that would mean that neutrinos account for more mass in the Universe than all of the protons and neutrons put together easily supplying the supposed “missing matter” necessary for the Big Crunch. As mentioned the critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity. In addition, the fact that neutrinos have mass also provides the basis for the Grand Unified Theory which links the gravitational force described in the General Theory of Relativity with the strong and the weak forces and electromagnetism described in the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Einstein struggled and failed to formulate this theory, but it has already been shown that at high enough energies electromagnetism and the weak force are the same force known as the electroweak force. It is theorized that if energies are increased even further and neutrinos acquire mass, which has now been fully documented, all the known forces will reduce to the same force thus providing the basis for the Grand Unified Theory. This high energy level existed only during the very early expansion of the Universe known as the Planck Epoch, which existed up to 10 to the negative 43rd seconds after the Big Bang, where the four fundamental forces — electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and gravitation — all had the same strength. After that point the energy level decreased and gravity separated from the other 3 fundamental forces and with the condensation of matter into the elementary particles (quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons) formed the so-called Standard Model of today’s Universe. These facts, while available, are de-emphasized by the capitalist dictatorship propaganda machine with the false claim that “no one—not even Einstein—has been able formulate the Grand Unified Theory,” in order to try to open the door to fraudulent “string theory.” The 1998 report that neutrinos have mass was blipped in the media and then neutrino research was de-funded worldwide and thereafter suppressed for a period of time. Wonder why?? It is time to employ some inductive reasoning, which is in fact scientific reasoning. (Note: in order to understand the relationship of the 4 primary forces which exist in the universe: the typical field strength of the strong nuclear force is 100 times the strength of the electromagnetic force, approximately 10 x13 times as great as that of the weak William H. Depperman February 26th, 2011 1:51 am ET Part 2 of 3: (Note: in order to understand the relationship of the 4 primary forces which exist in the universe: the typical field strength of the strong nuclear force is 100 times the strength of the electromagnetic force, approximately 10 x13 times as great as that of the weak nuclear force, and about 10 x38 times that of gravitation.) The Big Crunch will arrive on schedule and another Universe will begin! Einstein once said that a theory of the Universe should be both simple and elegant. Hawking sounds like a total jerk when he states that the Big Crunch is “too neat” and he prefers the “Big Rip.” Whaaa? See below. Einstein would definitely be rolling over in his grave if he were made aware of today’s totally contrived “science” especially the attempt by these fakers to re-introduce his fudge factor, the so-called “cosmological constant,” which Einstein invented/fabricated to allow for a static solution to his equations and a static Universe, which he was later forced to admit was false after the discovery of the Redshift by Edwin Hubble, which occurs when light or any type of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies shifts toward longer wavelengths, the less energetic part of the spectrum, due to the Doppler effect. The Red Shift indicates that those distant galaxies are moving away from our galaxy, the Milky Way (and vice versa) and that the Universe was expanding more rapidly at that time than presently when some galaxies are now actually moving toward us. The Universe is also simultaneously contracting on another level as explained above. The Redshift in light from receding galaxies is proportional to their distance from Earth. That is Hubble’s Law. The false assumption of a static Universe had prevented Einstein from predicting that the Universe was expanding. Einstein admitted that the “cosmological constant” was his “biggest blunder.” In December 1930 Einstein went to Cal Tech on a visiting professorship where he worked with Edwin Hubble and reportedly also apologized for his error. In 1998 the U.S. so-called “intelligence community,” directed their fleet of fake “cosmologists” and some opportunist and duped astrophysicists to try to pass off Einstein’s fraudulent cosmological constant as the entirely fictitious and admittedly totally unexplained so-called “dark energy,” (!) AKA “quintessence, “ which is supposedly responsible for a claimed “speeding up of the rate of expansion of the Universe,” which is NOT in fact actually occurring, and is now even proffered as a supposed reason for the Bermuda Triangle! This rubbish, as mentioned, has even been forced into advanced textbooks in astrophysics as supposed good coin. The reason for these wholesale falsifications of astrophysics is due to the capitalists’ desperation to establish a false basis to claim that the Universe supposedly had a single creation and that it will expand infinitely rather than collapse once again in the Big Crunch completing another cycle in an infinite number. The U.S. governments’ fictitious position is deliberately designed to try to allow for the existence of a “god” as “the creator.” The reason that the capitalists have formed an alliance with religion is that the capitalists depend on religion, belief in god and the supernatural as important weapons of deception directed against the masses! This also helps explain the appearance of fraudulent so-called “string theory” which falsely postulates multiple Universes, eleven dimensions, rather than the 4 dimensions which actually do measurably exist. Stephen Hawking, the ego-tripping, media-hyped “cosmologist” is once again postulating supposed “wormholes from one Universe to another” as well as supposed “wormholes” from one end of our Universe to the other to permit time travel “faster than the speed of light” (both of which are completely refuted by the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle not to mention Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity!). While Hawking temporarily retreated on the issue of time travel on being so reminded before recently re-embracing what he fully knows to be total nonsense, Heisenberg and other obstacles and impossible paradoxes preventing time travel are also brazenly ignored by others who are professional police-agent propagandists fully committed to such Big Lies of confusion such as the New York Times’ despicable Dennis Overbye and Nicholas Wade (Oy!), Brian Greene and the WBAI/CUNY huckster and self-described neo-creationist Michio Kaku, who claims to be an expert on everything, allowing him to cover up inter alia the documented fact that AIDS is Biowarfare by the U.S. Government Against Blacks and Gays primarily. Assuming the mantle of false authority, Kaku also tries to confuse his trusting, credulous, duped and even fawning listeners (including CCNY students!) on innumerable other issues. Kaku appears regularly on the BBC, Network TV “News” and elsewhere to push the new “scientific” fiction while steering false propaganda on astronomical events or physics research, the latter of which is largely controlled by the falsely labeled U.S. “intelligence community.” Note: so-called “Kerr spacetime” is just another string theory mathematical concoction. Note that on June 10, 2010 on ABC World News with Diane Sawyer Stephen Hawking also openly defined himself as a new style neo-creationist similar to Obama’s new head of NIH Francis Collins, and Michio Kaku (see below), providing false, specious Templeton foundation (see below) reasoning in order to make it appear possible to reconcile “god” and science, when he stated: "What could define God is thinking of God as the embodiment of the laws of nature.” (Demonstrating the reach and determination of the misnamed “intelligence community,” to brainwash the masses, Hawking’s false message has even been plastered in NYC Subway cars in the form of “a personal choice!”) Although Hawking tried to cover himself: "There is a fundamental difference between religion, which is based on authority, [and] science, which is based on observation and reason. Science will win because it works,” all of Hawking’s fraudulent “science” and adherence to “String Theory” lead right back to the existence of “god” as explained herein. But there is NO proof of the existence of “god” and WHO MADE “GOD?” Man! In Yet Another Attempt to Try to Generate Confusion and Discredit The Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Infinite Cycle of the Universe The Capitalist Dictatorship has Invented a Patently and Preposterously Fraudulent Counter “Theory” designated “Conformal Cyclic Cosmology!?” This Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics, which among other things, comprehensively explains and documents the Big Bang/Big Crunch Infinite Cycle of the Universe was first published in 2008 and is updated on occasion in response to the unrelenting Big Lies used to cover up and distort astrophysical reality. That same year and indubitably in response to this very document which exposes the so-called “inflationary model of the Universe” as a deliberately contrived fraud, the capitalist dictatorship’s misnamed so-called “intelligence community” apparently decided to add another layer of lies in their attempt to trivialize and discredit the Theory of the Big Crunch/Big Bang Cycle of the Universe, while simultaneously tweaking its own “standard inflationary model of the Universe,” which it has meanly foisted on the scientific community and an unsuspecting world. The author of this new phony “theory” pretentiously designated as so-called “Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC!),” Robert Penrose, a knighted confidante of the British capitalist class and crony of the totally discredited hoodwinker Steven Hawking (see above), has concocted a laughably-fraudulent paper and a concurrently published criminally dishonest book. The paper appeared in December 2010 with the heralded finding of “families of concentric circles” with “anomalously low temperature variance,” within the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), which Penrose claims represent “Black Hole ENCOUNTERS (!), within bound galactic clusters in the previous AEON.” (Emphasis added.) Give us a break! Already three groups of investigators have found that “the detection of the concentric anomalies was NOT statistically significant, in the sense that such circles would appear in a proper Gaussian simulation of the anisotropy of the CMB data.” Penrose and his collaborator V.G. Gurzadyan confronted with this reality were forced to admit that while the presence of individual circles in the CMB data was not statistically significant, they claimed to have found families of concentric circles, the presence of which cannot be found in the Gaussian simulation of the data. (!) Total Nonsense! See: Wekus IK; Eriksen HK (2010-12-07), arXiv:1012.1268v1, Moss A; Scott D; Zibin JP (2010), arXiv:1012.1305, Hajian A (2010-12-8), arXiv:1012.1656 and GurzadyanVG; Penrose R (2010-12-07), arXiv:1012.1486. (The Penrose book: “Cycles of Time,” Bodley Head Publishers 2010.) So just what is the primary objective, the actual motive for this false propaganda assault? The objective is to try to generate confusion and cause the much more widely known and understood Theory of the Big Crunch/Big Bang Cycle of the Universe to be supplanted in questioning minds, to the degree that that is possible, by the Penrose mathematical concoction: “Conformal Cyclic Cosmology,” and to make the acceptance of the cyclic nature of the Universe, which it contains and which is the target, dependent on the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the veracity of his claim of finding “families of concentric circles” in the CMBR. (!) When that deliberately false and preposterous claim is proved false on a less than fundamental and comprehensive basis, or is “disputed” on technical points (see above), then Penrose’s entire theory and its central thesis—that the Universe has a cyclic nature—and also the Big Bang/Big Crunch theory, its central target—is supposed to collapse like a straw man, in yet another example of this disinformation technique. (!) The Penrose book and theory of “conformal cyclic cosmology” is based largely on the Second Law of Thermodynamics (increasing entropy), which he deliberately fails to mention breaks down completely, just like all other physical laws, in Black Holes and the Final Singularity where all entropy is reversed. Penrose’s genuinely bizarre theory holds that prior to the Big Bang, Black Holes do not collide and combine all of the matter in the Universe, they merely “encounter” one another right along with their “bound galactic clusters” and “eventually evaporate.” (!) Penrose provides no evidence for this baseless claim. The truth is that by the time of the Big Crunch, A TERM WHICH IS DUTIFULLY NEVER MENTIONED, Supermassive Black Holes now at the center of elliptical galaxies would have accumulated ALL matter of their respective galaxies, a process which is currently ongoing! Galaxies themselves would have ceased to exist as such and would be replaced by super large Supermassive Black Holes. These would come together through the force of gravity, based on their proximity, finally in one spot (NOT a single point!) in the Big Crunch, which would result in another Big Bang at the point when critical mass is reached. See above. Nothing except matter itself from the previous Universe survives the Big Crunch/Big Bang cycle! Thus there could be no evidence of “Black Hole encounters from a previous (Universe)” in any way shape or form. But for Penrose the boundary between one Universe and another is “just a spacelike surface that can be passed across like any other.” Despite Stephen Hawking’s False Claims Time Travel is NOT Possible! Normally the topic of time travel would not be covered to this extent, but this issue must be considered at greater length because Stephen Hawking is a high profile celebrity balloon being foisted on an unsuspecting public and provided a TV and media stage to promote his total nonsense by the U.S. “intelligence community.” The media is using genuinely hypnotic, phantasmagorical, digitally enhanced false presentations by Hawking and others on the National Geographic TV Channel and other channels in order to distract from the central facts of theoretical astrophysics as presented herein and in order to try to keep the masses confused from every conceivable angle. Because of what amounts to a provocation, namely the recent onslaught of Big Lie “science” bombarding the TV airways, it behooves this writer to further refute the lies being hawked by Stephen Hawking and his NASA cronies. Hawking falsely claims: “there are wormholes everywhere in the 3 dimensional world and they exist also in the fourth dimension, where they exist at one billion trillionth trillionth of a centimeter! Trust me!” Right! Hawking tells us that “wormholes form in the so-called ‘quantum foam,’” where supposedly he can avoid violating Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and other laws and paradoxes which do not permit backwards time travel. See above. But Hawking cannot avoid the uncertainty principle and the paradoxes which prevent backwards “time travel” either by “wormholes” or by any other means! And he knows it! ”Quantum foam” is supposedly a description of subatomic spacetime turbulence at extremely small distances of the order of the Planck length. At such small scales of time and space the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle supposedly allows particles and energy to briefly come into existence, and then annihilate, without violating the law of conservation of mass and energy! But then Hawking bizarrely claims: “scientists will eventually capture and ENLARGE a worm hole a trillion times to be large enough for a space ship…to travel at 99% the speed of light…after 6 years in flight,” supposedly to get up speed. (See below.) A totally bizarre and ridiculous assertion in itself! At the enlarged size we must assume then that the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and all Laws of Physics and the paradoxes WILL once again apply and prevent backwards time travel. Presto, no backward time travel for Stephen Hawking! Hawking is finally forced to concede that going backwards in time is not possible because cause and effect would be reversed, which is not possible. In addition to this most obvious paradox of causality, two other irresolvable problems in backward time travel exist: 1.) Traveling backwards in time would also violate the law that the mass-energy of the Universe must remain constant, within the limits of the uncertainty principle. For example, a person traveling backwards in time would increase the mass of the universe at that point, which is not possible. 2.) Traveling backward in time would also cause a decrease in the Universe’s entropy, which always increases at a nonnegative rate. Forward time travel on the other hand generates no other paradoxes and is described by Special and General Relativity but is not practical in reality. Forward time travel in a practical sense is also not really possible. Hawking, however, insists it is supposedly possible if in order to reach a speed close enough to the speed of light in order to achieve the objective, a rocket ship course is set for just a little off center of the Supermassive Black Hole at the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy (!?), or a course is set to travel around the Earth for 6 years finishing at 99% the speed of light (somehow), which would supposedly allow travel 100 years into the future. As noted previously, mass becomes infinite at the speed of light and even well before the half-way point is reached the increased MASS of Hawking’s spaceship would indubitably prevent its further acceleration even if primitive rocketry were replaced by a UFO-type engine. Hawking describes his “spaceship” as “HUGE, because of all the FUEL it would have to carry,” (Think oil companies drilling into the future!) and is actually pictured as the typical cumbersome, multiple-defense-contract, primitive rocket powered NASA-inspired aerodynamically-ridiculous, Star Trek-type science fiction movie vehicle! Never even a mention of a nuclear powered flying saucer with the electromagnetic anti-gravity engine, which would be required for any interstellar voyages! All things considered it is time to wise up! Stephen Hawking is NOT a genius in any sense of the word. His false propaganda musings also demonstrate that his general knowledge and even his scientific knowledge outside of mathematics is actually very, very limited! We are left to fawn over such nonsense. A Further Note on Michio Kaku: It is a rule of statecraft that a government control and operate its own “opposition.” In the United States, the center of world capitalism-imperialism, the capitalist dictatorship controls the leadership of all supposed “left,” “socialist” or “Communist” political groups and parties. In addition, the capitalists also control the leaderships of all conspiracy groups and single-issue groups where the solutions are always based on the number one Big Lie of capitalism, i.e. that capitalism can be reformed, which it cannot. Single-issue groups represent divide (and conquer) of various political issues/problems most of which are created or perpetuated by capitalism, none of which are properly connected and linked to the need for a Socialist Revolution in the United States. Kaku began his political career by being placed at the front of the single-issue Anti-Nuclear Movement. Kaku began his work in the “intelligence community” in the early 1960’s just out of high school as a mathematical whiz kid, by becoming a protégé of Edward Teller, the “father of the Hydrogen Bomb” and the Neutron Bomb, the latter which is designed to kill people primarily while leaving property (private property!) intact, the ultimate capitalist weapon. A person or group is defined politically by what the person or group says and what it does not say and by what the person or group does and does not do. Unlike Stephen Hawking, Kaku’s words and actions, in addition to his history, clearly identify him as a political police agent provocateur. (See below.) Kaku worked with Teller at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, which is directly connected to both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Kaku undoubtedly had top-secret clearance from Edward Teller and moved freely between all three and has stated that at the time he was involved with developing the next stage of nuclear weapons research with Teller. Kaku claims that in the early 1980’s he gave up a career in nuclear weapons design and was “attracted to the peace movement and anti-nuclear movement” supposedly “because of Pacifica radio programs” he heard in the 1960’s. Oy! Right! I don’t believe you! The truth is that the U.S. “intelligence community” needed a young loyal, glib, supposedly “anti-nuclear” authority figure as a counter-insurgent (political police agent) to help keep the Anti-Nuclear Movement anti-Communist and help lead it to defeat and recruited Kaku, undoubtedly with Teller’s recommendation, immediately putting him in front of the demonstrations at Columbia University against the Triga Reactor on campus in the wake of the Three-Mile Island meltdown, his debut attended by this writer at that first demonstration. (When the U.S. Department of Energy converted the fuel in Triga reactors from uranium zirconium hydride to low-enriched uranium a meltdown became possible at the university setting, which had been virtually impossible previously.) Note also that there is an apparent difference between Michio Kaku and Stephen Hawking: Though their positions more or less coincide, Hawking is apparently motivated by personal aggrandizement and his desire to be awarded a Nobel Prize (for what Stephen…for COOPERATING?), while the media, an arm of the “intelligence community” provides maximum exposure to all of his fantastical, reactionary and genuinely unscientific theories/imaginings, in multiple full-hour TV shows on the “Discovery Channel,” for example. Michio Kaku also heads up the same full-hour TV shows but his reactionary political role on the other hand more easily identifies him as a highly motivated political police agent, whose background and objectives are explained above. They both play a negative role. Almost immediately Kaku sold out his supposed anti-nuclear “credentials” by writing a 1982 book with the title “Nuclear Power: Both Sides,” (!) which presented arguments against nuclear power followed by false “arguments” for nuclear power in order to keep the option of nuclear power viable! The book does NOT emphasize the BOTTOM LINE OF NUCLEAR POWER UP FRONT,: namely that nuclear power produces permanently non-disposable nuclear waste which will eventually get back into the environment through ground water, etc! Nuclear waste can NEVER EVER be disposed of! Period! Thus, there can be NO VIABLE HONEST PRO-NUCLEAR POSITION! This is what Kaku soft peddles! On February 4, 2010 Obama, by Bush-style executive decree, ordered that a new nuclear reactors should be built using54 billion of stimulus money under the Big Lie false claim that nuclear power, which produces the dirtiest, most dangerous and totally non-disposable nuclear waste, was now supposedly “clean energy.” (!) While the U.S. government-led “Anti-Nuclear Movement” remained silent! By executive decree Obama also ordered stimulus money to fund (non-existent) “clean coal” and drilling for oil off the U.S. coastline which has destroyed all marine life and completely polluted the nations beaches as the capitalist dictatorship has already done in the Gulf of Mexico! Demonstrating that the capitalist dictatorship has NO intention whatsoever of trying to reverse Global Warming its response has been to continue and intensify the drilling and mining for all fossil fuels, which is the reason Global Warming has occurred in the first place!

It should also be noted that Kaku was trained in the infantry and was all set to be deployed to Viet Nam just “when the war ended” in 1975, while his fellow inductees were sitting down on the wharfs in San Francisco and refusing to even get into the troop ships while a MUTINY broke out in Vietnam, which forced the total evacuation of all U.S. forces within days and hours, while our little patriot Kaku was all raring and ready to go and fight those dastardly Communists in Viet Nam. Anti-Communism remains Kaku’s primary political motivation. Kaku hides the fact that a million-strong Communist movement in the United States was the only thing which forced FDR to formulate the New Deal Social Programs, which the capitalist dictatorship under Obama is now trying to abolish in practice. In order to begin to abolish the function of Social Security, i.e. to keep older people alive, one of the first things Obama did was to terminate permanently for all practical purposes the Cost of Living Allowance (COLA) for Social Security on April 22, 2009, while previously forcing banks to accept $4.7 Trillion (!) for “bank bailouts” in order to divert that money from social programs, which is the same objective of Reagan/Bush /Obama Supply Side Trickle Down, Tax-Cut Economics. Pretending to “spar with the Republicans over how to revive the ailing economy” is designed to provide Obama “left” cover while hiding the fact that the only “solution” discussed, SUPPLY-SIDE ECONOMICS, was designed as a trick to divert money from social spending. See: “The Triumph of Politics: Why the Reagan Revolution Failed” by David Stockman, Reagan’s Economic Czar. Under the threat of a million-strong Communist Movement in the United States, Keynesian deficit spending of 37% of GDP was used by FDR during the New Deal and WWII created large-scale public jobs programs which in turn stimulated DEMAND, the engine of the economy. That alone lifted the U.S. out of the Great Depression and remains the only capitalist solution to the present Depression. Also needed is a Progressive Tax Structure, which will never happen under capitalism because of its One-Way Development Sequence. Instead the Bush Tax Cuts have been extended and Social Security Taxes suspended in order to get rid of Social Security. On July 5, 2010 on BBC TV Kaku totally exposed himself as a neo-creationist similar to Francis Collins Obama’s new head of the NIH (see below) and Stephen Hawking! Kaku let his political-religious motives all hang out in a response to a BBC report about the Plank Telescope. Kaku falsely claimed that Plank maps showed “the speed of light was exceeded in the Big Bang explosion due to dark energy,” which would violate the Special Theory of Relativity and is a total lie (see above), then claimed that the Planck Telescope will be looking for evidence of “worm holes,” “multiverses“ and “space time foam” (AKA “Quantum Foam”) now heavily pushed by the discredited Stephen Hawking, NASA and Kaku in an attempt to supplant quantum mechanics with String and M-Theory. Although he tried to cover himself saying: “this is all controversial,” Kaku openly identified himself as a neo-creationist: “We want to find the explanation for the creation, the Genesis, of the Universe.” Hawking’s new claim of “spontaneous creation” is also a total fraud. The origin of matter is an unknowable! (See below.) The misnamed, so-called “intelligence community” of the U.S.-led World Dictatorship of Millionaires and Billionaires is using Michio Kaku, his NASA cronies and apparently Stephen Hawking to try to take over physics and science from the inside and “the top” and make neo-creationism the default belief taught in physics and science courses in the schools, colleges and universities. In addition to trying to supplant Relativity and Quantum Mechanics the dictatorship is also attempting to supplant the Standard Model of the Theory of the Big Bang with the magically fraudulent, so-called “Theory of Inflation,” or “inflationary epoch,” which falsely depends on properties of elementary particles not accounted for in the standard big bang models, plus fictitious “dark energy.” Supposedly about 10-35 seconds after the Big Bang “dark energy,” which they interchangeably label “vacuum energy,” suddenly appeared from nowhere and as a consequence of this “vacuum energy” gravitation supposedly became “repulsive for a period of about 10-32 seconds.” (!) During this period the Universe supposedly expanded from a “single point smaller than an atom” or “a volume that was only a few centimeters across (!)” (take your pick) increasing its size scale by about a factor of 1050. (!) Totally ridiculous! There was NO sudden “inflation of the time-space continuum”! The purpose of this attempt to inject “dark energy sudden expansion” is to promote magical and superstitious religious belief—not science—and to fraudulently reduce the actual age of the Universe in accordance with the objective of the so-called “Key Project” to try to refute the Big Crunch and Big Bang/Big Crunch Cyclic Nature of the Universe. (See below.) The Standard Model of the Big Bang is based on detailed estimations of temperature change, energy density and thermal equilibrium, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics and relativity. Not violations of Relativity! The Standard Model of the Big Bang describes a sudden explosion/expansion during the first 3 minutes when matter was dominant but where elementary particles inter-converted with radiation according to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity: E=mc2. That explosion/expansion continued during a period where radiation dominated, which lasted for 700,000 years, or “absolute time units,” during which the Universe was opaque. When the temperature fell from 100 million degrees Centigrade to 3,000 degrees Kelvin matter again became dominant and the Universe first became transparent to radiation. Actual star formation probably could not have begun before about 1 billion years. The reality is that the Big Bang could at no time have proceeded faster than the speed of light! See: “The First Three Minutes” Steven Weinberg 1977, Basic Books, New York. But even Weinberg considers “Genesis” to be an important issue and moreover displays virtually no knowledge or understanding of Black Holes supposedly and provides a false description of the Big Crunch, an explanation which he strongly discourages, and where Black Holes receive no mention whatever and presumably play no part. (!) Apparently in reaction to having Michio Kaku & Co. exposed all over the Internet as a falsifier of basic theoretical astrophysics, etc., the misnamed “intelligence community” has given Kaku a huge media pump and put him front and center on U.S. government network news programs, where Kaku has made the brazen assertion that the Large Hadron Collider will “prove the existence of string theory and parallel universes”! Then on July 22, 2010, Kaku and his retinue on the “History Channel,” promising to “boggle your mind” (!) pulled out all the stops going for broke and coming on like exultant gangbusters, intensified their push of fraudulent “string theory” and now “membrane theory” (!) and their denial of Relativity (Special Theory and General Theory) and Heisenberg. The Truth About Unidentified Flying Objects UFOs (Flying Saucers) and Extraterrestrial Life: At the risk of sensationalizing the Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics this writer and many colleagues believe that is important to respond to and put into proper perspective the U.S. Government’s official position on: 1.) UFOs, and 2.) Extraterrestrial life, 3.) The consistently hostile portrayal of both by the media/entertainment industry, which is simply an arm of the U.S. Government’s dishonestly labeled brainwash operation known as the “intelligence community.” (See above.) This includes the most recent attack on “aliens” by Stephen Hawking, who is increasingly discredited among scientists but still heavily hyped by the capitalist dictatorship as he becomes more bizarre in his pronouncements, for reasons explained above. First of all, it is important to restate one of the fundamental Rules of Statecraft, namely that a government control and operate its own “opposition.” Within the capitalist dictatorship this applies not only to political parties and organizations as explained above but also to virtually every important issue and of course includes the hot topic of UFOs and extraterrestrial life. Note that despite an enormous effort to deny it the June 8, 1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia was a nuclear explosion equal to 30 million tons of TNT and is further proof of the existence of UFOs. In addition, the cylindrical fireball made 2 right-angle turns and exploded at between 2 to 3 miles altitude, and at ground zero left fused particles of magnetite, germanium (used in semiconductors) and silicate globules with traces of copper (possibly from wire), cobalt and nickel, not present in meteorites or comets. Ground zero precisely resembled ground zero at Hiroshima. In addition, the enormous heat of the explosion melted the permafrost in the Taiga and created several small lakes. There was NO loss of life in the explosion apparently because those in the flying saucer knew the area was uninhabited. See the deliberately obscurely entitled “The Fire Came By” by Baxter and Atkins, Doubleday 1976. At 5:11 PM on December 9, 1997 over the uninhabited southern tip of Greenland another “fireball,” a nuclear powered UFO, exploded at about the same height as in Tunguska and was “so bright as to turn night into day at a distance of 60 miles, and can be compared to the light of a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere.” New York Times, December 19, 1997, Page A17. It is a fact that ever since the film “The Day The Earth Stood Still” appeared in 1951 starring Michael Rennie, Patricia Neal and Sam Jaffe, where UFOs and alien life are portrayed favorably (see below), all portrayals by the capitalist dictatorship of alien life have been hostile and/or maximally dishonest. The reason is that the overwhelming majority of people on this planet already believe that UFOs exist and many have seen flying saucers themselves. But the U.S.-led world capitalist dictatorship will NEVER EVER officially acknowledge the presence of UFOs and will always deny their existence because by so doing they would be openly admitting that the present “civilization” on Earth is a low-level inferior civilization, which more advanced civilizations REFUSE TO MAKE ANY OFFICIAL CONTACT WITH! Acknowledging the existence of UFOs (flying saucers) would immediately also raise that crucial question of WHY the more advanced civilizations, which have solved the problem of space travel between stars, do NOT contact the governments of Earth. The reason is elementary and it is fundamental. The Rule of Advanced Civilizations Never to Contact Lower Civilizations: It is obviously a Rule of Advanced Civilizations never to make direct or official contact with a lower civilization defined as 1.) A civilization which has not advanced to World Socialism, which is the only way to permanently abolish the basis of all war on that planet as well as all threats to visiting civilizations and 2.) A civilization that officially denies the existence of UFOs and simultaneously expresses NOTHING but hatred, fear and hostility directed at UFOs and extraterrestrial life in its “popular culture,” e.g. films. 3.) A civilization which has not developed the nuclear powered electromagnetic anti-gravity engine which is used to power travel between stars. Obviously no advanced civilization which has visited Earth would even dream of making official contact with such a civilization which now fulfills ALL of the above criteria and represents nothing but potential danger to them. Such an advanced civilization could never share ANY scientific information with such a lower civilization, such as the mechanism of the electromagnetic anti-gravity engine because lower civilizations, which have not reached the stage of World Socialism are fundamentally based on war, mass murder, crime and subjugation to steal new resources and new markets to increase private profits, and would immediately turn around and attack the advanced civilization. This is a no-brainer and we have to give the advanced civilization credit for some brains. The government uses “Alien abduction” claims to discredit UFO reports in general but they may have some truth. The United States government and other governments control virtually all information on UFOs. This includes virtually the entire Internet! With one exception observed by this writer, it is noteworthy that in this age of super high quality cell phone cameras with video capabilities, that there is NOT even one good photograph or video of a UFO publicly available. The exception was a short video, which appeared on RT Russian Television in the United States suddenly at the end of a news broadcast approximately 2 years ago (2008) and was BLIPPED one time only. The very clear video was of a UFO from a very short distance of no more than about 50 yards. There was no mistaking what it was and RT Russian Television provided no commentary. The Russian Federation was obviously tweaking their U.S. “partners” and naturally there was no comment by the U.S. It is absolutely certain that all UFOs come from within out own galaxy because the nearest other galaxy is Andromeda, which is 2,500,000 light years away, a distance so great that it would completely rule out intergalactic travel. The descriptions of the extraterrestrials from the July 1947 Roswell, New Mexico UFO crash describe very thin humanlike individuals somewhat smaller than humans with bilateral symmetry and large heads. Other reports concur with this description. The reason that they are so thin is due to calcium loss from the bones over generations of space travel. These advanced civilizations undoubtedly also use suspended animation during their very long interstellar journeys and/or employ in vivo telomerase to permanently halt all aging. Evolution rules out entirely the fantastical forms of extraterrestrial life imagined by Stephen Hawking apparently inspired by other U.S. government-approved science fiction writers, including those who were responsible for the film “Independence Day,” etc. See below. Such increasingly crazed statements by people such as Stephen Hawking are thus also a direct attack on Evolution. Regarding speed of interstellar travel: mass becomes infinite as one approaches the speed of light. This would limit in a very practical sense the speed of interstellar travel to perhaps half the speed of light at most if that. That is still very fast and their actual velocity is probably much less actually. Those who set out on such missions from other planets know that they will never return because the distances are so vast. They are comparable to Lewis and Clark type exploratory expeditions. They would make their reports over the years, which would travel at the speed of light but would still take a long time to reach home. Any and all supposed threats to “invade Earth,” “drain its resources” and/or “colonize Earth” are entirely false and fictitious. The movie “Independence Day” was made to refurbish U.S. patriotism/jingoism and incite hatred of all “aliens” and most certainly does not concur with the descriptions in all previous reports of UFOs and of extraterrestrial life dating back for millennia. Note that even the Back to Africa Movement of Marcus Garvey could never have been accomplished because of the huge increase in the number of Black people in the U.S. since the advent of slavery. Colonizing and taking over an inhabited planet is thus sheer total nonsense. The “attempts” by NASA, etc. to “launch space probes to contact aliens” are just going through the motions and are just another denial of the fact that UFOs have been documented to have visited the Earth for millennia according to primitive drawings on the walls of caves and later depictions in other societies. No advanced civilization would want to advertise its presence to lower civilizations because of the threat described above, so even the giant Arecibo Radiotelescope in Puerto Rico is unlikely to detect presence of advanced “aliens.” The capitalist dictatorship uses every conceivable thing possible, even the threat of future invasions of aliens or rogue asteroids to try to generate the MASS PSYCHOLOGY OF CRISIS, which causes the masses to rally around and increase trust in the government no matter how oppressive and irresponsible it is, with the expectation that it will protect them. Incidentally, the strategy to divert even rather large asteroids has already been worked out in detail but is rarely mentioned in order to maintain as much fear and foreboding as possible, and simply involves detonating a nuclear device to the side of the asteroid, not on it, in order to divert it, not shatter it into multiple pieces, which would otherwise all be directed at Earth. Note that the so-called “War on Terror” is also designed to generate the Mass Psychology of Crisis in providing the pretext to maintain capitalism in its Final Stage of Permanent War and State Terrorism. If Islamic Fundamentalism did not exist it would have to be invented, because it is perfect for organizing and manipulating Mass Provocations as the pretext for the so-called War on Terror. Under Islam the only solution to U.S. aggression is a bomb NEVER Socialism. (See below) On the other hand the capitalist dictatorship reveals that it has no intention whatsoever of protecting the World from Global Warming now at the stage of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect, as it steps up drilling for oil and destroys all life and ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico, now a Dead Sea! At a point where the oil economy should have been ended and the fossil fuel industry shut down—which can only be done after a Socialist Revolution, the Obama regime, working with the Federal Court system which it pretends to “oppose,” has allowed deep water oil drilling to continue in almost 4000 other sites in the Gulf of Mexico (!) and has DECREED that later HE (Obama) will extend the same deep water drilling into the Atlantic Ocean all along the Eastern Seaboard where the seas are much rougher. If Obama was serious, which he is NOT, he would permanently stop all deep-water drilling on the basis of National Security! There will be more deep-water oil well blowouts. That is INEVITABLE! TIDAL POWER (tidalelectric.com), the only alternative energy source which can actually supplant fossil fuels for all uses except jet travel is never mentioned by Obama, Greenpeace (controlled, fake “opposition”) and the oil companies who propose wind and solar because they know those sources can not supplant oil! Mandating a change from incandescent to fluorescent light bulbs is NOT simply a case of going through the motions. The Obama Regime knows very well that the bulbs contain the poisonous element Mercury and are easily broken and will also increase the death rate and help to reduce the population, a primary objective of the Obama Regime. For example, Bush in his wildest dreams could never ever have pushed through the Obama “Healthcare Overhaul,” which was opposed by 58% of the American people and turns ALL of healthcare over to the insurance industry, while cutting$500 Billion from Medicare/Medicaid, the textbook definition of a scam, which is DESIGNED TO INCREASE HEALTHCARE RATIONING and bring people to an earlier death. End-Stage Capitalism is destroying the planet Earth while the masses presently remain neutralized. Capitalism is totally irresponsible and must be replaced by Socialism!

William H. Depperman   February 26th, 2011 1:51 am ET

Part 3 of 3:
The Statecraft: Why the Capitalist Dictatorship
Wants the Masses to Believe in God:

The bottom line is that the capitalists want the masses to believe in a god—any god—even though there is no scientific basis whatsoever to support belief in a god (Precisely the opposite!)—because, to the extent that they believe in god, those who do believe in god believe that what happens in the world, including both natural events and political events, happens according to god’s will! The reality is that natural events occur due to the natural laws of science, physics and evolution, and what happens in world political events is due primarily to the decisions and actions of the U.S.-led world capitalist dictatorship, which still dominates world events! In the mind of the believer, god and the capitalist dictatorship—the capitalist government—become one! The capitalist government becomes god in the mind of the believer! This is pretty strong stuff and is what Karl Marx meant when he described religion as the opiate of the masses. Such false belief in god blunts the thrust for revolutionary change. Revolutionary change requires an absolutely scientific, objective and logical analysis of political events, political contradiction and political history, in order to learn how to carry out effective social change, meaning Socialist Revolution here in the United States the center of capitalism and worldwide!

Michio Kaku and the So-Called “History Channel” Establishment
Cover Up the Fact that Einstein’s First 3 Papers in 1905
Were a Collaborative Effort With His Wife, Mileva Maric!

It should be mentioned that Michio Kaku and several others in typical sexist fashion in a 2-hour report on Albert Einstein on the so-called “History Channel” covered up through lies of omission the irrefutable fact that Einstein’s wife Mileva Maric made substantial contributions to Einstein’s first 3 papers in 1905, his miracle year, and that her name was on all 3 papers which were first submitted according to the Russian scientist, Abraham Joffe, who saw the signatures of both Einstein and Mileva Einstein-Marity (Marity is a Serbian form of Maric) on the original copies of the those papers. Maric’s name was later removed from all the originals to hide her contributions in keeping with the sexism of that time when women could not even vote and were deemed to be mere chattels. Mileva Maric’s contributions are specifically mentioned in 13 of the 43 of Einstein’s love letters to Maric, those which were not destroyed. Thirteen of those letters contained statements which referred to her research or to their ongoing collaborative effort. The most likely reason for the destruction of the other letters was of course to hide the fact that those 3 historic 1905 papers were in fact a collaborative effort. See: http://home.comcast.net/~xtxinc/mileva.htm and http://itis.volta.alessandria.it/episteme/ep4/ep4maric.htm as well as a very determined and disparaging attack of Mileva Maric at: http://www.esterson.org/milevamaric.htm, which is nevertheless refuted by the actual facts.

Later in 1914 when they moved to Berlin, and after Einstein had had his macho ego pumped up through the roof by Max Planck and others, Einstein actually tried to get Mileva to sign an onerous document, apparently a provocation designed to drive her away, which was rejected by Maric, which would have reduced her to a virtual slave in her own house! Kaku and the other “experts” of the establishment also cover up the fact that Einstein initially lacked the mathematics to formulate the General Theory of Relativity. Einstein had to be tutored in differential geometry for over a year by his longtime friend and colleague Marcel Grossman, who had attended the classes which Einstein had skipped, before he was able to formulate the mathematical proof of the General Theory of Relativity. The bottom line here is that Einstein was an intuitive astrophysicist, not an experimental astrophysicist and as such would undoubtedly have needed and benefited enormously from the relationship he had with his physicist wife, Mileva Maric, to confirm his ideas and to hear alternative points of view which the surviving letters from Einstein to Mileva indicate he incorporated into his first 3 papers from 1905. Einstein was not a god and had help all along the way.

The Fact that Einstein’s Brain Was Structurally Different Helped
But Was Not Determinative in his Contributions to Theoretical Physics!

The 1985 study of Einstein’s brain by Marian C. Diamond (see below) revealed that Einstein had more glial cells relative to neurons only in the left inferior parietal area, Brodmann’s area 39, where the difference was statistically significant. The parietal lobes of the brain form the association area of the brain. In this area Einstein possessed a significantly greater number of both astrocytes and oligodendroglia (oligodendrocytes) glial cells. Glial cells provide support and nutrition to the neurons, the brain cells—the grey matter. The number of glial cells increases with age given a normal blood circulation and increases up the evolutionary ladder. Astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells and fill the space between neurons by enveloping synaptic junctions in the brain, thereby restricting the amount of neurotransmitter molecules which have been released. Astrocytes have special proteins in their membranes which actively remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft. In addition, Astrocytes also possess neurotransmitter receptors just like nerve cells, which allow them to most efficiently coordinate their metabolism with the neurons. Astrocytes also absorb extra-cellular potassium ions which build up as the result of neuronal metabolism, as well as absorbing other substances which can interfere with nerve cell function. They cushion the brain and permit a more complex brain structure as their numbers increase. Oligodendroglia cells, like Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, form myelin layers around the neuronal axons (fibers) which insulates the neuronal axons in the brain, and thereby participate in neuronal signal transmission. Larger numbers of glial cells supply more energy for neural circuits. Microglia, which function as phagocytes to remove the debris of dead or degenerating nerve cells and glial cells, were not included in the study. Supposed criticism of Diamond’s study, namely that Diamond and a colleague had previously discovered that a rat in an enriched environment developed more glial cells in each neuron than its counterpart in an impoverished area is totally irrelevant to her findings in Einstein’s brain.

Einstein’s Association Area Was 15% Larger Than Normal

The left inferior parietal cortex is part of the association area which was 15% larger in Einstein’ brain due to the fact that Einstein’s brain lacked a complete Sylvian (lateral) fissure, which in Einstein’s brain did not extend posteriorly past the horizontal Central Sulcus of Rolando, which in all brains separates the frontal cortex from the parietal association area. Normal extension of the Sylvian fissure posterior to this point separates the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain. The lack of the Sylvian fissure in Einstein’s brain significantly expanded his parietal association area, while decreasing the size of the temporal lobe involved with speech: Einstein did not speak until he was 3 years old and had difficulty forming sentences. (The inferior parietal region is responsible for mathematical thought, visuospatial cognition, and imagery of movement.)

The glial study was performed by Marian C. Diamond at the University of California (Experimental Neurology, Vol. 88, pages 198-204 (1985). The gross study of Einstein’s brain was only published in 1999 (!) in the Lancet, Volume 353, Issue 9170, Pages 2149 – 2153, 19 June 1999. In addition, this citation and all the authors: Sandra F. Witelson, Debra L. Kigar and Thomas Harvey are censored by Medline, Pub Med, etc. This article is not listed under any of the authors of the study and Internet search engines deliberately misdirect people to a letter in the Lancet which appeared only many months later: The Lancet, Volume 354, Issue 9192, Page 1822, 20 November 1999. The reason that these studies were published so long after Einstein’s death in 1955 was because his brain was so completely different in appearance and structure lacking the posterior extension of the Sylvian fissure. This finding had NEVER ever been reported previously in all the annals of anatomical literature. Because of the fact that it was only 10 years after the end of World War II when Einstein died it was feared that release of the autopsy findings of Einstein’s brain at that time would provide a further basis for anti-Semitism, with the cry going out that “Jews are not like other humans! They are aliens! Look at Einstein’s brain! It’s not the same as that of other people!” While it is true that Einstein may have had an advantage by his brain anatomy both at the histological and gross levels, it is very unlikely that he would have made his contributions without the input of Mileva Maric his fellow-astrophysicist wife and his friend Marcel Grossman as documented above.

The Gutkind Letter Documents that Einstein was an Atheist!
Einstein’s Response to Strong Criticism by Soviet Scientists
Documents that by May 1949 Einstein was a Communist!

Einstein revealed very clearly and in no uncertain terms he was an atheist in his January 3, 1954 letter to Eric Gutkind, the Jewish philosopher, who had sent him a copy of his book Choose Life: The Biblical Call to Revolt. The letter was sold for $404,000 at auction on May 15, 2008 by Bloomsbury Auctions in London and the relevant text was published in the British Guardian on May 13, 2008, and also in the New York Times on May 17, 2008. The published section states: ... The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honourable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this. These subtilised interpretations are highly manifold according to their nature and have almost nothing to do with the original text. For me the Jewish religion like all other religions is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions. And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. As far as my experience goes, they are also no better than other human groups, although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. Otherwise I cannot see anything ‘chosen’ about them. In general I find it painful that you claim a privileged position and try to defend it by two walls of pride, an external one as a man and an internal one as a Jew. As a man you claim, so to speak, a dispensation from causality otherwise accepted, as a Jew the privilege of monotheism. But a limited causality is no longer a causality at all, as our wonderful Spinoza recognized with all incision, probably as the first one. And the animistic interpretations of the religions of nature are in principle not annulled by monopolization. With such walls we can only attain a certain self-deception, but our moral efforts are not furthered by them. On the contrary. Now that I have quite openly stated our differences in intellectual convictions it is still clear to me that we are quite close to each other in essential things, i.e. in our evalutations [sic] of human behaviour. What separates us are only intellectual ‘props’ and ‘rationalization’ in Freud’s language. Therefore I think that we would understand each other quite well if we talked about concrete things. With friendly thanks and best wishes Yours, A. Einstein. Many attempts have been made to falsely portray Einstein as someone who believed in god. The capitalist dictatorship media propagandists, and most recently especially the discredited professional liar Dennis Overbye, have been foremost in this effort. Even in the above-mentioned article in the New York Times Overbye tried to falsely attribute a belief by Einstein in “a personal god,” falsely stating that Einstein had said that he was “an agnostic” and “not an atheist.” This is entirely false! Einstein made no such statements and also never made the statement falsely attributed to him: “Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.” While Einstein’s did remark that “God does not play dice with the Universe” in response to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, formulated by Heisenberg in March 1926, Einstein undoubtedly made that remark while his ideas on religion were still in formation. Einstein developed into an atheist and a Communist (Materialist). This is fully documented by Einstein’s own writings, and of course in the above letter to Eric Gutkind. See below! In response to Einstein’s attempt to develop a theory of “One world Government” using the United Nations as a basis, Soviet scientists, Seigei Vavilov, A.N. Frumkin, A.F. Joffe and N.N. Semyonov wrote an Open letter in the Moscow New Times, November 26, 1947, criticizing “Dr. Einstein’s Mistaken Notions,” where they clearly explained that such a “one world government” would be simply a means by which all countries would submit to U.S. capitalist dictatorship. Einstein reacted to the very solid criticism by immediately writing a rejoinder to his Soviet colleagues entitled “A Reply to the Soviet Scientists” published in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, February 1948, where he lamely tried to defend his ideas and the United States. But by May 1949 Einstein had clearly done some re-thinking and completely reversed course! Einstein wrote: “Why Socialism” published in the Monthly Review, New York, (May, 1949) where he solidly backed Socialism and the Russian Revolution! Einstein finally showed that he understood that capitalism cannot be turned into Socialism and that a Socialist Revolution is necessary to create the change he envisioned. “Why Socialism” demonstrated that Einstein had begun to read Karl Marx, but unfortunately not Friedrich Engels’ Socialism: Utopian and Scientific or the works of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin), the architect and leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution, whose writings in The State and Revolution supplied most but not all of the answers to the practical questions Einstein raises at the end of the essay with regard to the Soviet Union: namely the problem of the bureaucracy. (See below for a brief explanation of this crucial problem and Analysis and Theses by this writer, of which this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics is only a small section, for a thorough consideration of the problems raised by Einstein and others.) No wonder Einstein was spied upon by J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI and no wonder Einstein was not permitted access to the Manhattan Project where the atomic bomb was developed, a project which he and Leo Szilard initiated with their August 2, 1939 letter to Franklin Delano Roosevelt recommending the building of an atomic bomb before the NAZIs did. All of the above-mentioned documents except the Einstein/Szilard letter are available in “Albert Einstein: Out of My Later Years” Revised Reprint Edition, Citadel Press, Secaucus, New Jersey 1956 and 1979. The Question of the Soviet Bureaucracy under “Socialism” or “Communism.” Einstein and all people want to know how to achieve a planned global economy based on human need not private profit. How do we limit or even abolish the bureaucracy? We first have to examine the real World View: Today we live in a world of nation states. All nation states are dictatorships of one class over another class, either the capitalist class over the working class or vice versa. (These are the only historically destined classes.) There is no “democracy” at the present time, not even for the capitalists. Capitalism has a dynamic of its own independent of the wills of the actual capitalists and capitalist politicians, which leads to Fascism, barbarism and finally the end of civilization. (See above.) Communism is a stateless society, which has never been practiced and can never be practiced until capitalism is abolished worldwide beginning with a Socialist Revolution at its center—the United States. Within the framework of the class dictatorship there can either be a hard or a soft dictatorship. The hard dictatorship of capitalism is known as Fascism, which has several historical variants. Today the United States is a military, bureaucratic police state, known as Rule by Decree (a form of Bonapartism), a step short of Fascism, which requires the organized support of the petit-bourgeoisie (the middle class), the organization of armed gangs with targeted scapegoats. U.S. leaders are Fascists because they support the ever-hardening capitalist dictatorship. All Workers’ States are hard dictatorships in order to prevent internal and external attempts to restore capitalism. Stalin was not actually a Communist by practice. After being made General Secretary Stalin murdered Lenin by poisoning him (see detailed article by Soviet Academician Yegor Yakovlev in Moscow News, No 4 (3356), January 29-February 5, 1989), and murdered virtually all the living leaders of the Russian Revolution with the exception of Lenin’s wife whom he controlled. Thereafter Stalin rode the back of the Socialist Revolution and drew all his power from it and was compelled to defend it, but only to the extent necessary to keep himself in power. The class dictatorship which existed in the USSR was partly necessary in a world where world capitalism was waging a continuous war against it, and arose because of that existing global class war, but the dictatorship in the USSR was obviously unnecessarily overdone by Joseph Stalin and his political descendants. Even Lenin in his writings did not consider the reality that capitalism must be overthrown in its center, the United States, before actual Socialism and Communism can be achieved. In The State and Revolution Lenin describes how the bureaucracy is eliminated by direct election and immediate recall. But capitalism must be overthrown at its center before that is possible. At the point of overthrow of the capitalist dictatorship and the expropriation of all of their stolen wealth (the wealth of goods and services created by the Working Class) true democracy will finally exist. There will be no basis for the continued existence of the state which will begin to wither away, as explained in detail by Friedrich Engels in Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. Today that point is potentially closer than ever before despite the present widespread demoralization and brainwashing of the masses under capitalism. Please see previous analyses of this writer for the detailed explanation of the 1988 Soviet Surrender to the Threat of a Nuclear War (There was no “Collapse of the USSR!”) and how the Socialist Revolution should be organized and carried out in the United States. Capitalism offers a world with no future and now threatens the existence of all life on Earth. The Scientific Basis of Atheism: The Origin of Matter is an Unknowable! The capitalist dictatorship would have the masses believe that there is no limit on humankind’s knowledge, that everything is knowable and that everything was created by “god.” But that is false; there is a limit on knowledge and there is no god. Because of the fact that we exist as part of the Universe we can not exit the Universe, stand outside it and declare that a god, much larger than we are naturally but of course in our own image, who naturally is usually white and always male, never female, created the Universe. The corollary is that the origin of matter is an unknowable! The false claim of supposed “wormholes” by the string theorists of course is a way to try to condition peoples’ minds to believe that they can do the opposite and exit the Universe, and is designed to set up the belief patterns for belief in god! (And while you’re at it, after you have exited the Universe don’t forget to check out “god,” he’s right over there. Right near that wormhole you just crawled out of, Michio Kaku!) Modern science has answered virtually all questions except one: the origin of matter. This is an unknowable. What is knowable is the cyclic nature of the Universe and the evolution of life, which is inevitable given basic necessary conditions. See below. Today religion and “god” continue to be invoked by the capitalist dictatorship to explain both the origin of life, matter and the existence of the Universe, rather than simply agreeing that certain things are unknowable. The reason is that the capitalist dictatorship uses religion to help control the masses as explained above. The original basis for belief in god (multiple gods initially) and religion was due to humankind’s inability to explain natural events and life itself. Primitive society had to have an explanation for what could not yet be explained scientifically. The philosophy of antiquity was primitive, spontaneously evolved materialism (Engels), which found its expression in polytheism where various gods were invented in the minds of primitive peoples, which were thought to control different areas of life: There was a sun god, a moon god, a weather god(s) thought to control rain, thunder and lightning, a god for earthquakes, a god of the seas, a god for day, a god for night and in some societies a god to control almost every aspect of life. Polytheism however was incapable of clearing up the relation between mind and matter. As Engels explains: “the need to get clarity on this question led to the doctrine of a soul separable from the body, then to the assertion of the immortality of this soul, and finally to monotheism.” As humankind’s thought gradually advanced and natural events acquired scientific explanations, polytheism gave way to monotheism. The old materialism was therefore negated by idealism. But in the course of the further development of philosophy, idealism, too, has become untenable in a practical sense and has been negated by modern Dialectical and Historical Materialism, presently tightly suppressed by the capitalist dictatorship. Prior to the development of modern materialism, which serves as the basis for this analysis, and existing simultaneously with its development, organized religion formed pacts with the existing power structures, pacts which have spanned the entire sequence of civilization from the primitive slave societies of Egypt, Greece and Rome to the feudalism-based monarchies of Europe to today’s rapidly hardening war-based capitalist dictatorship. When the French Monarchy and the nobility were overthrown in the French Revolution the Catholic Church was first rejected as a competing center of power but then embraced as indispensable by the bourgeoisie, which emerged victorious under Napoleon Bonaparte when it became clear that the peasantry, which had carried out the revolution could not organize or wield power. The bourgeoisie quickly realized that religion was necessary to help control the masses as under the Monarchy and signed the Concordat of 1801 that reestablished the Catholic Church in France but with reduced influence. This has continued into the modern day where the capitalist dictatorship uses the belief in god and religion to blunt the thrust for revolutionary change as explained above. NAZI Germany also signed the Reichskonkordat in 1933 with the Catholic Church and similar agreements with the protestant churches in Germany, which were an important step in international acceptance of the NAZIs. Today the capitalists work overtime to keep alive the belief in a “supreme being,” taking advantage of man’s arrogance and insistence to be able to explain everything. As mentioned above humankind cannot exit the Universe and is limited in this way. In the same way the origin of matter is also thus unknowable. The scientific basis of atheism includes but is not limited to the knowledge of the Special Theory of Relativity, The General Theory of Relativity, The Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe, the origin of life through the Primordial Soup Theory of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey and Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Through Natural Selection. This scientific basis of life and the Universe does not hold a place for a god. The capitalists’ propagandists try to keep the false idea of a god alive by claiming that science and religion are not incompatible. But they are entirely incompatible! There is no scientific basis for belief in a god and the religious Fascists know it very well. That is why they wage a continuous never-ending and ever-escalating battle against science in the classroom. The capitalists also front large organizations such as the John Templeton Foundation and the Stanford Templeton Research Institute for Nature, God and Science (STRINGS!) to try to reconcile religion and belief in god. The capitalist dictatorship has recently decided to push the theme of false unity of science and religion and belief in a god even more systematically with a TV series called “Closer to Truth: Cosmos. Consciousness. God,” which appears on the CUNY Channel, where they push the same disproved and discredited falsehoods already cited above such as “string theory,” “dark matter,” “dark energy,” “time travel” and “worm holes.” Good grief! Don’t be fooled for a second! This is simply creationism/intelligent design in disguise. It should be noted that the recent May 20, 2010 reported findings regarding the relationship of the 1% predominance of matter over anti-matter do not interfere in any way with this analysis or the Standard Model of Particle Physics. As an example of the escalation of the attack on science and materialism by religion and reaction, the Obama Regime has appointed a Jesus Freak, a well-known evangelist/sophisticated creationism propagandist and vehement anti-materialist, Francis Collins, as the new head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which directs funding of the majority of medical/scientific research in the United States. Though he strongly denies it Francis Collins, who is a scientist, is also a NEO-CREATIONIST, who professes the most sophisticated form of INTELLIGENT DESIGN where he attributes all scientific laws and findings no matter how complex to “god”! (This is another example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, which in this case is weighted toward reaction.) Note that the courts have already decided the obvious, that “intelligent design” is simply a form of creationism in a highly publicized case: Kitmiller v. Dover Area School District, 400 F. Supp. 2d 707, M.D. Pa. 2005. Collins is also the author of “The Language of God,” which absurdly claims the Big Bang and evolution were created by “god” (!) and states: “science offers no answers to the most pressing questions of human existence.” (!) This is a very Big Lie! Officially the Director of the NIH supposedly has very little power with decisions about how to spend the$30 billion annual budget being made by a committee of scientists or by the 27 directors of the individual institutes and centers, but Collins was chosen BECAUSE of his religious beliefs not in spite of them in order to provide him a bully pulpit for his beliefs. NIH funding is ALREADY highly politicized with the most worthwhile projects routinely rejected while the most ridiculous projects receive full funding! And contrary to Collins’ claim, human illness and disease DO constitute “one of the most pressing questions of human existence.” Because of his religious orientation the capitalist dictatorship previously appointed Collins head of the Human Genome Project. Although his ideology did not prevent him from doing his job there, where there were NOT so many different funding choices as at the NIH (where they are also much harder to follow), his high position and bully pulpit so to speak puts him in the position of Hoodwinking Chief Advocate for his sophisticated form of neo-creationism/intelligent design! The Pope of the NIH!

Note that Collins has also written: “the claims of atheistic materialism must be steadfastly resisted.” But Collins provides no reason whatsoever why such materialist claims must be resisted. And even if the arguments for his claim were as plentiful as blackberries, Herr Collins would give us none of them. Collins presumably rejects all that is written above and herein because it exposes his superstitious ideology as a fraud! Collins also denies that the origin of matter is an unknowable, which it is. See above. Collins thus implies that HE can exit the Universe and see “god” and that “god” created the Universe when he states: “God stands outside of nature.” (!) How would he know? Collins appointment is one more example of the one-way dynamic of capitalism-imperialism. Never before has a creationism-propagandist, disguised or open, been appointed as head of NIH or to the Human Genome Project! The appointment of Collins represents an increase in reaction, an escalation in the capitalist dictatorships’ use of religion to befuddle the masses and emphasizes how important religion and superstition are to capitalist statecraft in order to keep the masses confused and brainwashed and further demonstrates the necessity for a Socialist Revolution in the United States!

Religious superstition can play no constructive role in either genuinely progressive thought or the process of organizing a Socialist Revolution in the United States. On the other hand the Socialist Revolution, while it does not support religion, permits no crushing of any religion nor does it not pit one religion against another as the capitalists do routinely as part of their strategy of divide and conquer, nor does it permit manipulating a religion to form the basis for the so-called “War on Terror,” the pretext used to keep capitalism in its Final Stage of Permanent War and State Terrorism. This is what the capitalists have done in Iraq and elsewhere as part of their strategy of divide and conquer. The future of religion will be determined by an open long-term debate over time in a revolutionary evolving society and the strength of scientific evidence in addition to the polemics carried out by proponents of all religions as well as the proponents of atheism and Dialectical and Historical Materialism.

NOTE: the following paragraphs precede the above paragraphs in the entire piece about Global Warming and are in the proper order as they appear in the Analysis and Theses.

The Runaway Greenhouse Effect has already occurred on Venus where all the CO2 is found in the 932 degrees Fahrenheit (500 degrees Centigrade) atmosphere. The water in the oceans of Venus, which were nearly the size of the oceans on Earth, all evaporated away very early because of the heat generated by the Runaway Greenhouse Effect caused by the fact that Venus receives 30% more sunlight than the Earth. The evaporating oceans finally boiled away completely after the temperature reached the temperature of the Venusian boiling point of water, the equivalent on Earth of a measly 212 degrees Fahrenheit—on its way to the present 932 degrees Fahrenheit! Once in the upper atmosphere ultraviolet radiation from the sun split the H20 apart into hydrogen, which disappeared into space and oxygen, which reacted with minerals on the surface and also disappeared from the atmosphere. The Evolution of Life is what prevented a Runaway Greenhouse Effect from occurring on Earth as it did on Venus! Life did not evolve on Venus because of the heat, with the consequence that there was no plant and animal life to absorb the gradual build-up of CO2 from volcanoes, the source of all carbon, which eventually formed the thick atmosphere which exists on Venus today, composed primarily of CO2 (96.5%) with the remainder nitrogen (3.5%) and other minor components expressed in a few parts per million, such as argon 70 ppm, carbon monoxide 17 ppm, helium 12 ppm, neon 7 ppm, plus a sulfuric acid cloud deck (sulfur dioxide—150 ppm) beginning at about 50 kilometers above the surface. In addition, there are only 20 parts per million of water vapor remaining from the huge oceans which once existed on Venus. On Earth the CO2 which was released into the atmosphere through volcanoes went into evolving vegetation and then animal life, which over hundreds of millions of years became deposited in the crust of the Earth as the fossil fuels coal and oil. There is no carbon found in the crust of Venus. That is how we know that life did not evolve on Venus! Today the frenzied burning of those fossil fuels here on Earth has resulted in having the huge amount of CO2 stored in them being released all at once into the atmosphere. The Earth’s carbon sinks, the Earth’s natural storage mechanisms for CO2—the rain forests other vegetation and the oceans—have a limit and are now being overwhelmed. As occurred on Venus billions of years ago, that process now appears to have reached the stage of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect here on Earth. Without a Socialist Revolution here in the United States, which is the only possible way to still reverse that process, the situation on Venus today will be the future of the Earth in the not so distant future. We are presently experiencing the beginning of that future. Life on Earth will become totally unlivable far before we arrive at the situation existing on Venus today.

The response of the capitalist dictatorship to the Global Warming and Runaway Greenhouse Effect has been to INTENSIFY the drilling and mining for fossil fuels, which is what has caused the Global Warming in the first place. The Obama Regime’s role is to go through the motions, try to assuage the fear of the masses and “fight climate change” with “cap and trade “ which simple perpetuates oil usage. While providing yet another false solution, so-called “fee and dividend” (see below), government-controlled false opposition figure James Hansen exposes cap and trade as a sham, “a market-based (capitalist) approach …which does little to slow global warming or reduce our dependence on fossil fuels,” but is designed to “allow polluters and Wall Street traders to fleece the public out of billions of dollars,” and “Because cap and trade is enforced through the selling and trading of permits, it actually perpetuates the pollution it is supposed to eliminate” pointing out that the total impracticality of cap and trade: “If every polluter’s emissions fell below the incrementally lowered cap, then the price of pollution credits would collapse and the economic rationale to keep reducing pollution would disappear.” Hansen’s scheme of “fee and dividend” calls for a gradually rising “carbon fee,” which would be the same as a value added tax (national energy sales tax) on all goods manufactured with fossil fuels. Which would then supposedly, according to Hansen, be “redistributed to the public.” (!) (New York Times, December 7, 2009) But Hansen wants us to believe in Santa Claus hiding the fact that the capitalist dictatorship is waging an accelerating economic war of extermination (“population reduction”) against the masses and would never RETURN a national sales tax! The capitalist dictatorship wants to impose a national energy tax in any case, which they have no intention of returning! (Billionaires pay only 27.9% on their first \$106,800 of income and have drained us dry!)

The temperature on Earth does not have to rise very much to destroy all life. This may occur in a couple of hundred years at most if the fossil fuel industry is not shut down entirely. This is the reality which fake “opposition” figures such as James Hansen and Al Gore and Steven Chu deliberately hide, while they attempt to control the issue and lead it to defeat. As described elsewhere in the analysis of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect this process involves multiple positive feedbacks or vicious circles. The arctic sea ice normally reflects heat and light from the sun back into space, but this effect decreases as the ice is replaced by the darker sea water when the ice melts, which in turn absorbs more heat from the sunlight. This is known as the ice-albedo feedback or the ice-reflectivity feedback and is the most important feedback in the polar region. It was reported on NBC Evening News on May 13, 2009 that the polar ice may all be gone within 5 years. Because the North and South Poles act as thermostats for the planet removal of that thermostat may result in an abrupt increase in global warming making life much more difficult and increasing the melting of the ice on Greenland, raising sea levels much more rapidly.

In the 1951 science fiction/political film, The Day The Earth Stood Still, the Earth was visited by people in a flying saucer from a more advanced civilization which delivered an ultimatum at the end: “It is no concern of ours how you run your own planet, but if you threaten to extend your violence, this Earth of yours will be reduced to a burned out cinder. Your choice is simple: join us and live in peace, or pursue your present course and face obliteration. We shall be waiting for your answer. The decision rests with you.” The result of Earth being reduced to a burned out cinder is clearly not limited to war and peace or even nuclear war. Although it goes without saying that capitalism-imperialism, due to its internal dynamic as explained herein, automatically extends violence everywhere and even to outer space with its Star Wars Program, etc. (which has thankfully not yet been realized in practice), capitalism has also extended maximum violence to the environment, e.g. the Gulf of Mexico. The environmental reality, not science fiction, is that with the onset of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect the Earth is now on course to become a burned out cinder like Venus! Only a Socialist Revolution can avert this catastrophe! It is our right and it is our duty, according to The Declaration of Independence, to avert this catastrophe by ending the capitalist dictatorship in the United States through a Socialist Revolution.

Natural Origin of Nucleotides Finally Solved while NASA Attacks Evolution!

As reported in the Nature Vol. 459 pp.239-242, May14, 2009 by Sutherland JD et al, the actual formation of ribosenucleotides proceeds from constituent parts of arabinose amino-oxazoline and anhydronucleoside intermediates rather than from free ribose and nucleobases, thus finally solving the problem of the natural origin of nucleotides. The starting materials for the synthesis were cyanamide, cyanoacetylene, glycoaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and inorganic phosphate, all of which are plausible prebiotic feedstock molecules. The conditions of the synthesis were consistent with potential early-Earth geochemical models as made clear in the study. Although inorganic phosphate is only incorporated into the nucleotides at a later stage of the synthesis, its presence from the start is essential as it controls 3 reactions in the earlier stages by acting as a general acid/base catalyst, a nucleophilic catalyst, a pH buffer and a chemical buffer, according to the study! In addition, because these reactions take place at moderate temperatures this study by Sutherland et al. supports the Primordial Soup theory of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey first proposed by Thomas Darwin himself, who in his 1871 letter to the botanist Joseph Hooker stated that he believed that life evolved “in some little warm pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts.” (!) Urey and Miller indubitably read this letter which motivated their work described above, which is ruthlessly ridiculed by the NASA creationists and their supporters and is not even mentioned by Nicholas Wade in the New York Times, May 14, 2008 reference article! Self-replicating RNA molecules are well known today and have been extensively studied and described in the major media and peer review journals. And DNA clearly evolved from RNA. There is no credible dispute. Problem solved. But the Big Lies just keep on coming!

NASA Has Genetically Engineered a Bacterium Forced to Grow With Arsenic
Substituted For Phosphorus as a Pretext to Make the Preposterous Claim that
Life Can EVOLVE NATURALLY with the Poisonous Element Arsenic in Order
To Falsely Justify Space Missions to Non-Life Bearing Celestial Bodies!

In an act of clumsy desperation, in a heavily-hyped paper in December 3, 2010 Science Express timed to appear on the same day as it was announced in the major media, e.g., The New York Times, where it was falsely announced as “a discovery,” NASA has proved (big deal!) ONLY that they can GENETICALLY ENGINEER a, bacterium, from the hypersaline and alkaline Lake Mono in California “with high dissolved arsenic concentrations (200uM!).” The bacterium which NORMALLY incorporates ONLY PHOSPHORUS into its DNA, RNA, proteins and cell membrane lipid structures while growing in that very lake, was genetically engineered to incorporate ARSENIC in these macromolecules by gradually increasing the concentrations of arsenic in the cell culture to astronomically higher levels (from 200 uM to 40 mM!) while totally eliminating PHOSPHORUS! This is called cell culture adaptation and was the genetic engineering method used by the U.S. Department of Biological Warfare to create the AIDS virus from the Visna-Maedi lentivirus (a sheep virus from Iceland), by gradually increasing the number of human T-4 lymphocytes in the cell culture of sheep T-4 lymphocytes. Actually the Visna-Maedi lentivirus was first adapted to bovine T-4 cells and then to human T-4 cells using this method, while being also fiendishly adapted to several other poor unsuspecting species (e.g., cats!) in order to give the false impression that lentiviruses are found normally in species other than ungulata (hoofed animals). They are not! This route can be proved through analysis of the proviral DNA for all 3 species!) Note that NASA’s genetically engineered bacterium in question, GFAJ-1, did NOT grow, much less EVOLVE starting with arsenic but with phosphorus and grew “considerably better” with phosphorus as the paper admits! A similar phony claim, scientifically disproved below, that life itself supposedly “evolved from submarine vents,” is also simultaneously hyped by same phony “experts”/provocateurs such as Michio Kaku on BBC TV and elsewhere. As proved below the falsely labeled “Archaea” itself represents an end point in evolution, not a beginning, and as demonstrated below could not possibly have been a starting point for the evolution of life. The New York Times article was written by professional liar Dennis Overbye in order to falsely shape the perception and significance of the NASA concoction, falsely claiming that the bacterium “Finds Arsenic Tasty and Delicious” (!) and ridiculously claimed a day earlier, December 2nd, that the genetically engineered organism “redefines life…using biochemical powers we have not yet dared to dream about.” Shudder! At the very end of the December 3rd NYT article contrary opinion appears, pointing out that the bacterium, GFAJ-1, is abnormally swollen to 60% normal size and hyper-vacuolated and the arsenate molecules that would make up the DNA backbone rather than phosphorus are unstable and would dissolve easily in water! But the Big Lie Technique is used to ram it home for NASA!

NASA also pushes the false “Theory of Panspermia” on the phony, so-called “History Channel” (July 2010) in order: 1.) to simultaneously attack evolution and 2.) to falsely justify primitive rocket trips to asteroids and other unlikely sources of life! In 1969 a carbonaceous meteorite fell in Murchison Australia which had a high concentrations of amino acids, about 100 ppm, found in the same pre-biotic experiments of Stanley Miller, proving that the early evolution of life is a constant which occurs throughout the universe given certain favorable conditions, NOT that life came to Earth from comets or asteroids from elsewhere—the so-called “Theory of Panspermia,” which is also fraudulently being passed off as a “theory of life.” Cosmic rays and the heat of entry into Earth’s atmosphere would have destroyed all life potentially surviving the near absolute zero temperature of interstellar or interplanetary space. The goal of these determined and deliberate falsifiers is to keep the masses confused on as many scientific matters and political matters as possible. Because a confused person cannot act! False analysis of one issue leads in turn to false analysis of another. In such a situation the masses are much more likely to think what they are told to think and to do what they are told to do by the capitalist dictatorship. Since 1969 incidentally numerous carbonaceous meteorites have revealed the presence of amino acids.

In falsely pushing “Panspermia” NASA, on the so-called “History Channel,” also claims that the water on Earth was delivered by asteroids and comets, a ridiculous assertion which is ruled out by isotopic and molecular ratio consideration. The solar system formed due to collapse of a large, cold slowly rotating nebular cloud of gas and dust into an accretion disk that defined the plane of the solar system. The terrestrial planets grew in this accretion disk bathed in a gas of Hydrogen, Helium and Oxygen (the latter from previous supernovae) with the dominant gas phases being H2, He, H20 and CO. There is a growing consensus never mentioned by NASA’s phony “experts” that terrestrial planets accreted “Wet.” What that means is that despite the fact that it was too hot for hydrous minerals to form, grains in the accretion disk did adsorb water vapor with multiple calculations using equilibrium thermodynamics showing that at least 2 Earth masses of water vapor existed within 3 AU (3 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun). The total amount of water in the Earth is approximately 10 Earth oceans, with most water being stored in minerals such as silicates. See: “Origin of water in the terrestrial planets” Michael J. Drake, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Volume 40, Issue 4, Pages 515-656 (April 2005), pp. 519-527(9).

LIFE ALSO DID NOT EVOLVE AT SUBMARINE VENTS! Among the more recent false claims of evolution of life is the truly ridiculous claim that life supposedly “evolved at submarine vents” formed under the oceans where tectonic plates meet, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This Big Lie is being endlessly and relentlessly repeated on various phony “science” shows. But it is a fact that submarine vents don't make organic compounds, they decompose them! These vents are one of the limiting factors on what organic compounds would exist in the primitive oceans. At the present time, the entire ocean goes through those vents in 10 million years. So all of the organic compounds are destroyed every ten million years. That places a constraint on how much organic material could accumulate. In addition, it also provides a time scale for the origin of life. If all the polymers and other compounds that evolve are continuously destroyed that means life would have to start early and evolve rapidly. Looking at the process in detail, it is clear that long periods of time would be detrimental, rather than helpful to this fraudulent, totally contrived and deliberately misleading so-called “theory” of the origin of life which was created, among other reactionary reasons (see below), in order to provide a false pretext for NASA to carry out extremely costly and entirely unnecessary and useless space ventures using the primitive form of space travel, rocketry, to outlying planetary satellites under the false pretext of “searching for life,” wherever there might be water (!) discovered by spectral analysis for example, in order to keep their jobs and obtain continued government funding and to serve as yet one more pretext to divert money from social spending. The NASA propagandists now ridiculously claim that “the only thing necessary for evolution of life is water because every drop of water on Earth contains some bacteria.” (National Geographic Channel, August 15, 2010). Note that on other shows shown simultaneously they absurdly try to supplant Evolution itself with Panspermia, while falsely pushing civilizations supposedly built on arsenic! (See above.)

The most recent bizarre “projects’ in this series are the Obama plans to send missions to asteroids (!) and trying to privatize—just like Bush—what should properly be part of the existing government, even after a Socialist Revolution in the United States! Privatization of government agencies reflects both the one-way dynamic of capitalism and its true inherent anarchy. Instead there should be a concerted attempt to develop (or back-engineer) the electromagnetic anti-gravity engine used by the UFO’s. This requires nuclear power and a structural material which is super-conducting at room temperature. That material exists and is known as the nanotube form of carbon, the hardest known material ever discovered, far harder than diamonds. (Note that the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to 2 transplanted Russians for the discovery of a related carbon structure, graphene, with similar properties.) But it is highly likely that there is too much money invested in rocketry the most primitive form of space travel, which is backed by the oil industry, which has also just permanently destroyed the Gulf of Mexico from the bottom to the top for at least a hundred years while the oil industry demands to continue and expand deep water drilling!! This is further proof of the almost entirely one-way dynamic of capitalism, which is completely independent of the wills of the individual capitalists and politicians, a dynamic which leads to Fascism, barbarism and finally the end of civilization; and now with the advent of the Runaway Greenhouse Effect, the end of all life on Earth, which will not come in “a billion years when the sun expands” as falsely claimed but much, much earlier if capitalism is allowed to continue.

In the 1930’s a million strong Communist movement in the United States generated the pressure which forced Roosevelt to write the New Deal, 16 social programs which included the Social Security Act. Then and most recently on Public Television FDR was given credit for “saving capitalism.” From what? From a Socialist Revolution in the United States! It was that close! So the New Deal, which is just a dream today—instead we get the No Deal and the Bad Deal because there is now a zero Communist movement in the United States—was at that time actually just a BRIBE! So why did the Communist-led Working Class take that bribe? The reason was because of the deliberate misleadership of Josef Stalin. Stalin himself was not a Communist in practice. Stalin opposed taking state power in all votes taken even the night before the 1917 Russian Revolution. Stalin voted with Kamniev who always voted against. Stalin murdered Lenin, a fact which was known since the 1920’s, but only officially acknowledged by Gorbachev in a detailed article in the Moscow News, No 4 (3356) January 29-February 5, 1989 and killed the majority of the leaders of the Russian Revolution, some outright some through show trials. In addition to deliberately misleading the Working Class in the U.S. and throughout Europe, Stalin sent 50,000 Chinese Communists to their deaths before Mao Tse Tung finally stopped following Stalin’s directives. In 1943 Stalin ended the Communist International officially! So much for Stalin being a “Communist.” We need to build back a genuine Communist Party to a million strong and more. We need a Socialist Revolution here and now in the United States. For those who believe unnecessarily that they need a legal basis, the Declaration of Independence is actually a transitional document for a Socialist Revolution in the United States. In the final analysis all wars are won and lost on morale and every movement begins with the call. This analysis is part of that call.

William H. Depperman, Coordinator
United Front Against Racism
And Capitalism-Imperialism
New York, N.Y.
Revised February 25, 2011

Peter Piazza   May 21st, 2011 3:43 pm ET

Stephen Hawking is simultaneously 100% correct and 1005 incorrect.
The universe(s) do come from nothing as he correctly theorizes.
Nonetheless, NOTHING is a neccessary part of EVERYTHING.
If EVERYTHING were devoid of NOTHING then EVERYTHING would be incomplete and less than EVERYTHING.
Hawking misses this point.
The universe(s) are expressions within the NOTHING and of the NOTHING.
However, the NOTHINGNESS that Hawking's refers to is a component of EVERYTHING simply because EVERYTHING by virtue of being EVERYTHING necessarily includes NOTHING as an aspect of its EVERYTHINGNESS.
The word "God" may be substituted for EVERYTHING.

babaelf   May 21st, 2011 9:14 pm ET

Peter Piazza has comprehended the pure truth of Meher Baba in his delineation of the Nothing and the Everything. Something so rare on this site!

Peter Piazza   May 22nd, 2011 5:20 pm ET

Well , ...I'm not quite certain that I've "comprehended" much of anything other than some of the flaws I perceive in the thinking of Stephen Hawking.
I think the point is that TRUTH is really incomprehensible. However, that is not to say that it is unattainable. Attainability is an entirely different matter.
One thing I find incomprehensible ( other than the Supreme Truth ) , is that a mathematical genious of such magnitude as Hawking could fall into such a mathematical fallacy. It would be much more understandable for someone such as myself to blunder with the mathematical fallacy that NOTHING can produce SOMETHING.
If I understand his reasoning, it appears he believes that out of NOTHING came SOMETHING called the Universe(s). In other words, he believes there is something substanitive to the universe(s). Perhaps he believes the universe(s) to be REAL.
Such a believe would be entirely inconsistent with his ( correct ) theory that the universe(s) came from NOTHING.
Once again, if I understand him correctly he seems to be saying that NOTHING= Something, rather than correctly saying that NOTHING =nothing.
Its almost like trying to prove that 1=2. As an example, let us say that a=b.
Our proof that 1=2 ,( in this analogy 1 being NOTHING and 2 being something ), would look like the following:
Step 1 ab=a squared
Step 2 ab-b squared=a squared-b squared
Step 3 b(a-b)=(a+b)(a-b)
Step 4 b=a+b
Step 5 b=2b
Step6 therefore 1=2

The mathematical fallacy here is that if, as we postulated at the outset,
a=b, then a-b in step 3= zero. We cannot then cancel the two (a-b)'s in Step 3 and thus we cannot move to Step 4. It is simply NOT a permitted algebraic operation.
Therefore this proof that 1=2 is a mathematical fallacy not dissimilar from the fallacy which Hawkin postulates that out of NOTHING came something and that "something" is the universe(s).
Algebraically, the universe must be nothing if it came from NOTHING.
He should know this stuff better than I do.
I salute him for his contributions to science but I hope before he dies he realizes that his life long work has NOT been the study of "something" from NOTHING, but rather the study of "nothing" from NOTHING.
He can't seem to wrap himself around the notion that galaxies and quasars and black holes and neutron stars, etc.,etc are not real. They are all countless "nothings" born of NOTHING.
If he is a true scientist he shall eventually succumb.

babaelf   May 22nd, 2011 6:37 pm ET

It seems that I may have spoken too early on Peter Piazza’s comprehension of Meher Baba’s delineation of the NOTHING. So, LET’S START AT THE BEGINNING:
The first imagination in Vedanta is called the "lahar" (whim); by the Sufis it is called "guman" (fancy). This first imagination was the first urge in the beginningless beginning to know Itself. As soon as this urge appeared, the beginning of the beginning started – not of God, but of the whim which created this Nothing which was latent in God. It was the whim: "Who Am I?" That very moment, with the beginning of the whim, Nothing was produced, and instead of knowing Himself, God began knowing this Nothing.
For example, imagine that when a whim comes you are sound asleep, and Elcha, creating a disturbance, wakes you up. Now the meaning of Elcha's disturbance is the whim to know oneself. So when you are disturbed, you gradually awake from your sound sleep. When you are awake, what do you see? You see your own shadow before you. Thus, when God was awakened, He saw His own Shadow before Him. After completion of the seven stages [of evolution], His eyes were fully opened and He saw His full Shadow.
The meaning of this full Shadow is the Nothing, which was latent in Paramatma and which manifested itself with the beginning of the whim. He saw this Nothing through the seven stages (gas, stone, vegetable, worm, fish, bird, animal) and then became a man. He completely forgot His infinity. He lost sight of His power, bliss, knowledge and through the medium of the shadow of the Nothing, according to sanskaras, saw Himself in the Nothing.
And He goes on changing forms – at times man, at times woman, at times beautiful, at times ugly, sometimes rich, sometimes poor – He continues to change forms. He experiences suffering and happiness, death and birth – and all this is illusion, sheer imagination, because all is the Nothing which came into being with the start of the whim. His eyes opened fully after passing through the seven stages. After they were completely opened in the form of man, He experienced the outer world; after which He began seeing Himself within in the inner seven states which are called the seven planes.
God wants to know Himself, but before knowing Himself he begins experiencing misery and happiness, as explained. After the journey through the seven planes, He becomes fully conscious of His divinity. You find some people suffering, some happy, some ugly, some beautiful, some rich, some poor. But all this is fancy – delusion.
When you become free, you will realize that all this is a dream! When God got the whim to know Himself, the beginning began, and that which has a beginning also has an end. So now for this Nothing that is born of the whim, beginning, end and everything that is opposite to God appears.
God is formless in the Beyond-Beyond state. So the Nothing must have form. God is the Everything! And in Him, this Nothing is latent. Nothing is opposite to Everything. The Everything (God) is formless; so, Nothing must have form, as it is contrary to Everything. God is endless; Nothing must have an end. God is infinite; Nothing must be finite. God cannot be called One, because He is so unique in His Oneness (beyond comparison) that He cannot even be called One; whereas Nothing is manifold.
As soon as the Nothing manifests, God, who is independent and beyond law, gets Himself bound by law. Law of what? Of the Nothingness! Now the meaning of this Nothing is nothing. Here it is the Shadow. So what is the shadow of this Shadow of Nothing? How has it happened here?
If you look at the shadow of your hand, this shadow is due to the light and your hand, as it (shadow) was latent in your hand. Light is the whim. The shadow is latent but it is nothing – yet Nothing IS! This nothing is bound by the law of Nothing.
For us, this law of Nothing is binding. Nothing has three states called "teen bhuvan" (three planes or levels): mental, subtle and gross. All three states are covered by the law. Although everyone's face is different, yet each has two ears, one nose and two hands, according to the law of Nothing. This law is the cause of every binding and it lasts until one is freed of it.
Everything is fixed according to this law of Nothing. A fixed number of different forms, a fixed number of births and deaths – everything. In reality, all this is nothing! Some births are good, some are not so good. It follows a zigzag pattern. A rich man, then a poor woman. Happiness and misery alternatively until the cycle of births and deaths is complete and emancipation achieved.
The law of the Nothing is in itself nothing! There is no such thing as misery. People cry out, suffer, complain about injustice and all such things, because they are unaware of the law. You think this is God's injustice, but God has nothing to do with it! –MEHER BABA
http://www.lordmeher.org pp. 4196-97

Peter Piazza   May 22nd, 2011 10:01 pm ET

I'm delighted to see we agree that my comprehension is certainly less than comprehensive.
Perhaps the lesson that you've learned is that one ought not speak too early.
Perhaps the next lesson you'll learn is to boast a little less about what you believe you understand .
Perhaps this will in turn bring you to understand that the beginning of True Knowledge is knowing you don't know.
Only then can you begin the humble journey towards True Knowledge.
By the way, NOTHING is NOT finite, nor does it have an end.

babaelf   May 23rd, 2011 9:38 am ET

Peter Piazza responded: "Perhaps the next lesson you'll learn is to boast a little less about what you believe you understand......"

Perhaps you didn't see the signature at the bottom of my last post. It was not mine, nor a boast on my part, but I was simply quoting the teachings of the Avatar of this age Meher Baba on The Everything and the Nothing for your edification.

babaelf   May 23rd, 2011 9:43 am ET

Perhaps a direct quote from Avatar Meher Baba's book The Everything and the Nothing would have helped:

UNIVERSAL BODY
God's Imagination begets Universal Mind, Universal Energy
and Universal Body in which are contained the individual
minds, individual energies and individual bodies of every
thing and being in Creation.

Universal Mind, Universal Energy and Universal Body are
because of the existence of God's Imagination which exists
as Non-existence within the Infinite Eternal and

Individual minds, individual energies and individual bodies
have no existence in themselves, but exist only as effects
in existing Non-existence.

In my Universal Body are contained all the gross bodies of
all the innumerable beings and things in Creation.
Individual subtle bodies (energies) and mental bodies
(minds) are part of my Universal Energy and Universal Mind.
In both Universal Energy and Universal Mind there are no
divisions.

Distance between a drop here and a drop there in the ocean
makes no difference to each drop's relation to the ocean.
Any drop within the ocean is within the entirety and
homogeneity of the ocean.

There are no divisions in Paramatma; only the One
Indivisible Ocean of Reality exists as Eternal Existence.

THE EVERYTHING AND THE NOTHING, p. 59

Peter Piazza   May 23rd, 2011 1:13 pm ET

Meher who ?????
Is he some kind of swami or dervish?
Babaelf , you've proven you can read , but reading and understanding are entirely different matters. To read something is not the same as comrehending what one has read.
Evangelists read,"the meek shall inherit the earth" and understand that to mean they should have 10 Rolls Royces.
Interpretation plays a role as well.
Man o man , all I did was through a little basic algebra into the mix and you got yourself all lathered up !!
If your Meher guy is prolific, I'm sure he's written or said that NOTHING ( as a necessary part of EVERYTHING'S EVERYTHINGNESS ) is also INFINITE.
You probably just need to check the context in which he's speaking.
He may be saying both depending on the context .He'd be correct in both instances.
He sounds like a pretty cool dude. Does he teach at Cambridge or MIT? Does he have a PhD?
Your readers would probably be better off checking directly with him rather then paying attention to us.
You mentioned the word "avatar".
I saw the movie and thought it was overrated. I hope he doesn't look like one of those characters in the movie.

babaelf   May 23rd, 2011 2:02 pm ET

Every 5000 years the Avatar takes human birth 7 times. His advents occur every 700-1400 years. In just this last 5000 year cycle, he appeared as Zoroaster, Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Jesus, Mohammed and in this age he was called Meher Baba [Compassionate Father]. His final incarnation at the end of the previous 5000 year cycle was as Abraham. His next incarnation in 700 years will begin a new 5000 year cycle. As the original first human being, aka Adam, to make the entire journey across evolution to human form and reach God-Realization,he became responsible for the entire creation and is known as the "Avatar" a Sanskrit word meaning the descent of God. Well, you asked.
I'm a former religious who's spent the last 35 years researching his life and have just completed an as yet unpublished 2500 page biography of his life and teachings. If you're interested try:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avatar_Meher_Baba Also the website that I gave in my second email http://www.lordmeher.org is a 20 volume official biography of over 6000 pages available free online.....

Peter Piazza   May 23rd, 2011 3:07 pm ET

Thanks Babaelf. I'll look into the material you referenced but to be truthful with you I really don't have time to read a 6000 page book.
Are there shorter works I can start with ? Does he have any published essays or dissertations I can read?
Also , let's forget about all this cosmic stuff for a moment. Does he have anything published regarding the dealings with day to day life ? If so , how would one obtain this material ?
Is there some way in which I can email him ?

babaelf   May 23rd, 2011 3:35 pm ET

Well, Meher Baba doesn't have internet connection, but he has a very active 'inner' net connection directly from your heart. Sees and hears everything 24/7 - I know you think I'm joking, but it's for real, if he is who he says he is....That's certainly been my experience. He was Gandhi's and Mother Teresa's spiritual mentor, and they recognized him as Christ come again. The Vatican knows about him, but is keeping mum, as he didn't have much good to say about the Church or the priesthoods of any of the organized religions. He has many published works free online:

The following site is for books written “by” Meher Baba:

http://www.ambppct.org/meherbaba/BooksByMeherBaba.php#top

The Discourses and God Speaks are the most comprehensive ones, and the Discourses are each not that long. Check out the contents page to find something of interest.....
Online books written “about” Meher Baba are found at:

On either site select the book and then click on “Read Me.”
I could send you some info but we're not supposed to post private email addresses or phone #s here, and how else to touch base?

babaelf   May 23rd, 2011 3:42 pm ET

By the way, Meher Baba was Silent after 1925 till his passing in 1969. In the following Universal Message given in 1953 he speaks of 'breaking his silence' and event he said would happen sometime in the mid-to third quarter of the 21st century and open the floodgates of Divine love on earth following great global destruction:
:
UNIVERSAL MESSAGE
I have come not to teach but to awaken. Understand therefore that I lay down no precepts. Throughout eternity I have laid down principles and precepts, but mankind has ignored them. Man’s inability to live God’s words makes the Avatar’s teaching a mockery. Instead of practicing the compassion He taught, man has waged crusades in His name. Instead of living the humility, purity and truth of His words, man has given way to hatred, greed and violence.
Because man has been deaf to the principles and precepts laid down by God in the past, in this present Avataric Form I am observing Silence. You have asked for and been given enough words. It is now time to live them. To get nearer and nearer to God you have to get further and further away from “I,” “my,” “me” and “mine.” You have not to renounce anything but your own self. It is as simple as that, though found to be almost impossible. It is possible for you to renounce your limited self by my Grace. I have come to release that Grace.
I repeat. I lay down no precepts. When I release the tide of Truth, which I have come to give, men’s daily lives will be the living precept. Words I have not spoken will come to life in them. I veil myself from man by his curtain of ignorance and manifest my Glory to a few. My present Avataric Form is the last Incarnation in this cycle of time; hence my Manifestation will be the greatest. When I break my Silence, the impact of my Love will be universal; all life in creation will know, feel and receive of it, helping every individual to break himself free of his own bondage in his own way.
I am the Divine Beloved who loves you more than you can ever love yourself. The breaking my silence will help you to help yourself in knowing your real Self. All this world confusion and chaos was inevitable and no one is to blame. What had to happen has happened; and what has to happen will happen. There was and is no way out except through my coming in your midst. I had to come and I have come. I am the Ancient One.

Peter Piazza   May 23rd, 2011 4:03 pm ET

Babaelf, thanks for the information. I'll look into some of the contacts you've provided. I was moved by this universal message you shared. He's correct. There have been enough words and it is finally time to live them. I'll try to find out more about him. He's intrigued me.

babaelf   May 23rd, 2011 8:12 pm ET

Oh, forgot to add; take my name and add @roadrunner.com and I'll send you some amazing stuff......

Peter Piazza   May 24th, 2011 7:47 pm ET

I was fishing around a large library network nearby my residence to see if I could find anything on Mehra Baba.
One library sent me to another one in which they had a beat up copy of something called, God Speaking' or something to that effect.
I couldn't check the book out without my card but I glanced through it for about 2 hours.
There was some pretty amazing stuff in there.
Its a funny thing, but when I was reading some of the pages I got a little freaked out at points but I also felt like all that I was reading was written with a certain authority which I can't describe.
I don't know how this guy could know this stuff or where he learned it from, but I'll admit it made sense to me whether its accurate or not.
I'm stuck on this point we debated the other day about whether Nothing is finite or Infinite and lo and behold, in the back of that book there was a glossary.
The word "Nothing" was defined and I wrote it down. It said ,"The infinite shadow of God,Who is everything".
It does kind of help make the point which I was trying to make before my basic algebraic fallacy example freaked you out.
Reading this was eerie in light of the conversation we had the other day.
When I pay my fines and get my new library card I might check out this book.

babaelf   May 24th, 2011 8:55 pm ET

Well, your library experience with God Speaks, speak for itself - volumes. He's undoubtedly contacted you. Here's what Meher Baba said about this work.
In God Speaks, Baba explains that man’s mind as the seat of desires and thoughts is derived from Infinite Mind. Emotional energy as the seat of vigor and force is derived from Infinite Power, while the body – typifying happiness and its opposite, misery – is derived from Infinite Bliss. [www.lordmeher.org p. 6211]
He gave interviews at the Delmonico Hotel on Park Ave in NYC, deeply touching Dodd, Mead & Co. executives, Mr. Bond and Mr. Phelps Platt – the publishers of God Speaks. Baba commented, “When I break my silence, this book will be priceless and treasured by the whole world.”
Once, when his disciple, Kumar, asked why Baba’s books were only in English, Baba replied, “I’ve come especially for the West this time. If you ask any illiterate Indian, in his heart he knows; he has feeling and respect of how to love God. But in the West people only follow their priests, go to church and genuflect – but they don’t know how to love God. They have to learn how to approach God; that relationship with Him doesn’t exist.”
The answers to many questions is in my book God Speaks. It gives every detail about the evolution of consciousness, reincarnation, the involution of consciousness and then the final experience of Union with God . . . . [www.lordmeher.org p. 4993] And don't forget the contact hint I gave you in my previous message.....

babaelf   May 28th, 2011 7:02 pm ET

Several have asked for more about Meher Baba. I don't know what to do here, but perhaps this will give them a lead;
“What Will my Lovers Think?”
In the mid 1969s, Baba gave 5 days of darshan in Poona where 1000s came as he bowed down to them. After his two auto accidents, the pain in his hip, back and neck reached such a proportion that no one could have an idea of the intensity of his suffering. Commenting on the India-Pakistan problem, he said: “During the East-West gathering in 1962, there was the Chinese aggression against India. And now, during this gathering, there is the India-Pakistan disturbance.
“All are alike to me, my beloved children, whether Chinese or Pakistanis. But the fact remains that I've taken birth in India, so don’t feel nervous. It’s just my joke. My joke means you having to suffer in ignorance. This suffering of yours I take upon myself.”
Then Baba asked someone, “How did you get leave from your job to come to Poona to see me?” The man replied, “My leave problem was not serious.” Baba quipped, “Right. Nothing is serious in this world. The only serious thing is that you can’t see me as I am!” [www.lordmeher.org p. 6344]
One morning during this long darshan program, Baba was feeling particularly weak. He asked Bhau, “Will I be able to get there, to the dais this morning?” Every now and then Baba would ask the time. He tried to stand, but his legs shook so badly that Bhau made him lie right back down. “How am I going to get out there?” Baba asked, “What will my lovers think if I don’t go?”
Bhau massaged his legs for a while. Afterwards, Baba gestured, “Let me try again.” The same thing happened. Baba’s legs shook so much as he tried to stand that he was just unable to. Finally, he motioned Bhau to hold on to his hands, and with great effort and Bhau’s support he was able to stand slowly and take just a few steps. “You see my plight?” Baba sighed. “My lovers have come and I can’t even walk properly to them. What will they think? How helpless I’ve become!”
But as soon as Baba crossed the threshold of his room to go out onto the stage, a marked change took place – he walked normally, as if nothing had ever happened to him! Gone was the tired, heavy expression of suffering. Baba’s face resembled a fresh rose! Striding quickly, when he reached the dais his lovers repeatedly shouted, “Avatar Meher Baba Ki Jai!” not knowing that just 3 minutes before,
Baba had been in excruciating pain, unable to even stand. It seems that it was the love of his lovers that somehow gave Baba the strength to do what he had to do.
A man who was meeting Baba for the first time described how Baba appeared when he stepped onto the stage that morning: “His body seemed to emanate a perceptible radiance, as if some fluorescent material was lit up under the transparent golden skin of his body.
Just as ships caught in a storm in darkness gain courage and hope on seeing the flash of a nearby lighthouse, so the many souls struggling for relief in the darkness of ignorance from their
ever-tightening bonds of sanskaras, felt hope and joy on seeing Baba, who seemed to emit rays of spiritual light and love.” http://www.lordmeher.org pp.6345–49
Peter and Helen Rowan, an Australian couple, came to India totally unannounced and luckily found themselves in the darshan line that morning. Earlier, back home, Peter had read just a dozen or so pages of The Perfect Master and instantly knew that Baba was not only his Master, but always had been:
"There was no acceptance, no rejection – It was simply a fact. I was his. . . . I bowed at Baba’s feet, and the floodgates of my soul opened. Scalding, burning tears like I had never known before poured like a river over the Beloved’s feet. It was as if all the ignorance I had experienced over millions of lifetimes came pouring out of me at that moment. All the filth, muck and degradation that this life in illusion had experienced were now pouring out on the Beloved’s dear feet.
"My body was vibrating with tremendous force. I couldn’t even raise my head from his feet. I found myself repeating, through a flood of tears: ‘Baba, Baba, Baba!’ His name became a constant, unbroken sound on my lips, until I found myself kneeling before him with folded palms.
"Baba’s eyes came from across what seemed to be a vast distance. It was as if he were looking at me across all my lives. His eyes met mine, and I’ve never seen, nor do I ever again expect to see such loving, unutterable kindness and compassion. His eyes were literally oceans of the sweetest, most loving kindness and compassion.
"It was the most singularly significant and sublime moment of my life. As Baba’s eyes met mine, he reached in a slow, gentle arc and stroked my face, from the cheeks and moving down to the chin, with his thumb and forefinger meeting an inch or so from my chin, continuing the movement to its conclusion. This one stroke is sufficient to take me across all time with my Beloved. http://www.lordmeher.org pp. 6356 End.

Peter Piazza   May 30th, 2011 1:56 pm ET

Babaelf , it appears to me that what you have shared in your most recent post exemplifies something I've always believed about Jesus.
I've often wondered , " Was the scourging and the crucifixtion of Jesus the totality of His suffering for humanity , OR , ....was His real suffering something much, much more grand than any suffering any human body could conceivably contain?"
I can attest that in my life I've experiebced excruciating physical suffering at moments , and I've experienced excruciating emotional, mental ,spiritual suffering at other moments.
If I had to rate the two, I'd rate the later as the worse of the two.
I wonder if people like Mel Gibson who graphically depict and imagine the physical suffering of Jesus at the time of the crucifixtion have ever thought that perhaps as horrific as that suffering most assuredly was, it paled in comparison to the "inner" sufferings Jesus endured for all humanity.
I see some of this in your Meher Baba as well.
What do you think?

babaelf   May 30th, 2011 3:24 pm ET

What you ask is dealt with explicitly in Chapter 39 "Jesus - The Lost Chapters, from my as yet unpublished biography of Meher Baba Christ Come Again. I quote from that chapter::
The Passion of Christ
Over a period of many decades, Meher Baba spoke countless times and under many different circumstances about his life as Jesus.
The motion picture, The Passion of Christ, and the issues it raises about Jesus’ crucifixion should be dealt with. The fact that this film was full of historical inaccuracies can only be attributed to divergences contained in the accounts of the New Testament itself. The filmmakers cannot be faulted for that. But what some found truly disturbing, turning many away from the film, including myself, was excessive, heavy-handed footage focusing on the horrific external brutality and physical sufferings of Jesus.
This film never grasped nor was able to show the depth of the far deeper inner agony that Jesus took upon himself for the sake of Love and the entire creation in suffering for the universe. I say, “Took upon himself,” and there’s the rub. Meher Baba made clear that when the Avatar’s comes on earth, the divine wish and will is that he gets himself crucified, one way or another. Jesus suffered infinitely more than ordinary humans, and His suffering was far more internal than mere nails through his hands and feet.
When Christ incarnates, He uses only His infinite Knowledge. He does not make use of His infinite Power and infinite Bliss. This is because God incarnates as Man and goes through universal suffering and helplessness in order to emancipate mankind from its ignorance of suffering and helplessness. If the Avatar were to use His infinite Power, how could He experience helplessness? If the Avatar used His infinite Bliss, how could He suffer? He uses neither His infinite Bliss, nor His infinite Power. Such is His Compassion for His creation.
It is through this gross exchange in the Avatar’s physical and mental suffering taken on through his limited human, physical body that the redemptive cleansing of humanity and all kingdoms in the creation occurs. Voluntarily undertaking this agony, he washes away the world’s impressions of ignorance in his blood, restoring balance, while giving a spiritual push forward to all life in each kingdom of the creation, wherever in the universe it may lie.
“Whenever God manifests on earth as Avatar, his Godhood gives a universal push, and the result is universal, i.e., not only humanity, but everything in the entire creation reaps the benefit of this universal push.” This is accomplished in each of the kingdoms of evolution where all finite life is pushed closer to eventual infinite human form.

babaelf   May 31st, 2011 7:03 pm ET

I don't know what I've started here, but I'm inundated with questions about Meher Baba. Let's try to give a shot-gun answer that addresses many of your individual queries by giving his short discourse of The Unity of All Life, given by Meher Baba on September 12th 1954:
_______________________________________

Age after age, amidst the clamor of disruptions, wars, fear and chaos rings the Avatar’s Call: “Come all unto me!” Although, because of the veil of illusion, this call of the Ancient One may appear as a voice in the wilderness, its echo and re-echo nevertheless pervade through time and space, to rouse at first a few and eventually millions from their deep slumber of ignorance. And in the midst of illusion, as the Voice behind all voices, it awakens humanity to bear witness to the manifestation of God amidst mankind. The time is come. I repeat the call and bid all to come unto me.
Irrespective of your doubts or convictions and for the infinite love I bear for one and all, I continue to come as the Avatar, to be judged time and again by humanity in its ignorance to help man distinguish the Real from the false. The greatest greatness and the greatest humility go hand in hand, naturally and without effort. When the Greatest of all says, “I am the Greatest,” it is but a spontaneous expression of an infallible Truth. The strength of his greatness lies not in raising the dead, but in his great humiliation when he allows himself to be ridiculed, persecuted and crucified at the hands of those weak in flesh and spirit.
Through the ages, humanity has failed to fathom the true depth of humility underlying the greatness of the Avatar, gauging his divinity by its mere religious standards. Even real saints with some knowledge of Truth have failed to understand the Avatar’s greatness when faced with his real humility. Age after age, history repeats itself when men and women in their ignorance, limitations and pride sit in judgment over the God-incarnated Man who declares his Godhood.
They condemn him for uttering Truths they cannot understand. He is indifferent to abuse and persecution, for in his true compassion he understands, in his continual experience of Reality he knows, and in his infinite mercy he forgives. God is all, knows all and does all. When the Avatar proclaims he is the Ancient One, it is God proclaiming his manifestation on earth. When man utters for or against the Avatarhood, i
t is God who speaks through him. God alone declares himself through the Avatar and mankind. I tell you all with my divine authority that you and I are not “we” but “One.”
You unconsciously feel my Avatarhood within you; I consciously feel in you what each of you feel. Thus, every one of us is Avatar in the sense that everyone and everything is everyone and everything, at the same time and for all time. There is nothing but God. He is the only Reality, and we all are one in the indivisible Oneness of this absolute Reality.
When the one who has realized God says, “I am God, you are God, and we all are One,” and also awakens this feeling of Oneness in his illusion-bound selves, then the question of the lowly and the great, the poor and the rich, the humble and the modest, the good and the bad vanishes.
Pay heed when I say with my divine authority that the Oneness of Reality is so uncompromisingly unlimited and all-pervading that not only “We are One,” but even this collective term of “we” has no place in the Infinite, Indivisible Oneness. Awaken from your ignorance and try at least to understand that in the uncompromisingly Indivisible Oneness, not only is the Avatar God, but also the ant and the sparrow, just as one and all of you are nothing but God.
The apparent difference is in states of consciousness. The Avatar knows that which is a sparrow is not a sparrow; whereas, the sparrow does not realize this and, being ignorant of its ignorance, remains a sparrow.
Live not in ignorance. Do not waste your precious life span differentiating and judging your fellow men, but learn to long for the love of God. Even in the midst of your worldly activities, live only to find and realize your true Identity with your Beloved God.
Be pure and simple; love all because all are one. Live a sincere life; be natural and be honest with yourself. Honesty will guard you against false modesty and will give you the strength of true humility. Spare no pains to help others. Seek no other reward than the gift of Divine Love. Yearn for this gift sincerely and intensely, and I promise in the name of my divine honesty that I will give you much more than you yearn for. I give you all my blessing that the spark of my divine love may implant in your hearts the deep longing for love of God.
[From: http://www.lordmeher.org . pp. 4420–21]

Peter Piazza   June 11th, 2011 4:06 pm ET

Babaelf, at this very moment I find myself sitting in a cathedral called the Riverside Church. It is on Riverside Drive in Manhattan.
I am here because a good friend of mine is currently being ordained as a Reverend of the "One Spirit Interfaith Seminary".
As I sit and listen to the beautiful messages each speaker delivers , some of whom have even mentioned the word "Avatar", I can honestly tell you it feels like Meher Baba is here in the Cathedral with us.
It really is quite a serene experience.
The "presence" is compelling. There's a lot of love here as people quote Rumi, Islam,Buddhist teachings etc. , all so accepting of one another.

babaelf   June 11th, 2011 4:22 pm ET

I know Riverside Church well, being an old Manhattanite and former clergy member. I believe what you are experiencing today is part of the bringing together of the "beads" as Meher Baba put it in a historic 1932 Paramount London newsreel. He said that following his Manifestation [mid-late 21st century] all religions will become as originally meant to be. “I intend bringing together all religions and cults like beads on one string and revitalize them for individual and collective needs. This is my mission to the West. The peace and harmony that I talk of and that will settle on the face of this worried world are not far off.”
Meanwhile, congratulations to your friend on this milestone day in his spiritual path.....

babaelf   June 11th, 2011 7:11 pm ET

In following the original thread of this blog - the creation and dissolution of the universe, I would like to give the gist of Meher Baba's teaching on Man as the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.

When God as mere man is in sound sleep, where time, space, the day and the entire universe have all been apparently destroyed for him, then what is it that every day wakes him up and unfailingly recreates his daily morning and all the things around him in the universe? It is man’s own dormant impressions or sanskaric windings gathered during the course of the evolution of consciousness and in the process of repeated reincarnations. They incite his dormant consciousness in sound sleep to wake him up inadvertently every day without fail.
These are impressions of the already existing Illusion of the original creation which sprang from the original whim of God. The only reason man awakens from sound sleep is so that these dormant impressions may spend themselves and become exhausted through conscious experiences during his so-called awake state. Creator-Preserver-Destroyer are attributes of God relating to time and change in the created universe.
In this manner, a person’s own impressions in the dormant state “create” anew for that person his own morning and “preserve” his own universe throughout the day. Eventually, both the morning, the day and the entire universe of the person are “destroyed” by the person’s own opposite impressions experienced in the sleep state; impressions which are diametrically opposite to the impressions of their awake state:
Hence, in regular unfailing succession, God in the man state as man, consistently asserts Himself as the Creator of His own Creation through the dormant impressions of man; as the Preserver of His own Creation, while man leads everyday life in the awake state, procreating the impressions of creation; and as the Destroyer of His own Creation through the opposite impressions of man when he falls asleep and ultimately passes away in the sound sleep state. Every day, finally destroying the very creation as individualized by his consciousness, man once again creates, preserves and destroys the whole of creation by the play of impressions. . . .Through the very being of every thing [in] creation, God consistently asserts His infinite triune attributes as Creator, Preserver and Destroyer. [God Speaks 110—11]
Natural sanskaras are necessary for evolution to produce the progress of consciousness; like to get from stone state to plant and so on up the ladder of consciousness. Un-natural sanskaras obstruct the progress of consciousness – what are called “stupid sanskaras,” what people do mostly without love – selfish, greedy, egoistic and especially lustful actions. But whether natural or unnatural, good or bad, all have to be eventually gotten rid of. That only happens when the mind is totally annihilated.
But before and leading up to the mind’s annihilation, the cultivation of good sanskaras can help wear out the bad ones by fostering experiences opposite those that
predominate in animal life. The opposite of lust is love, the opposite of greed is generosity, and the opposite of anger is tolerance or patience. By trying to dwell in love, generosity, and tolerance, man can erase the tendencies of lust, greed, and anger. How to describe this knot of sanskaras? Let’s consider them like a dance – the dance of the “three veils.”

David Calder Hardy   June 12th, 2011 12:29 am ET

This blog is now some billions of miles out into space and who ever brings about the crunch will they please file it away for a rainy day. Someone might want to read it in the next time around. Who knows?

Meantime I'll make a cup of tea and go to bed..Sweet dreams.

babaelf   June 12th, 2011 7:02 pm ET

David, if you go way, way back in this blog you’ll find the idea of Mahapralaya was introduced - the periodic total contraction and dissolution of the entire universe as regards the Big Crunch. Such contractions also happen on a smaller, earthly scale known as a Minipralaya, such as the earth experienced at the time of the flood. We need clearly and unambiguously speak of such an apocalyptic aspect of a coming new history for humanity, likely by the mid to third-quarter of this 21st century.
Without being facetious about it, we can begin by saying that the entire universe is a totally put-up job. The original whim of God’s Infinite Imagination in the Beyond- Beyond state to bring forth the creation from the Absolute, is so sudden, inexplicably spontaneous and so totally without intention that it’s impossible to describe.
As God is Infinite and Eternal, so is His Imagination Infinite and Eternal. As God’s Imagination is unending, the Creation as the product of His Imagination, goes on endlessly expanding until it reverses and collapses. How can man imagine God’s Infinite Imagination with his finite imagining? Man’s highest flights of intellectual imagination can never bring him the faintest idea of God’s Imagination. And God’s Reality is yet beyond this again.
When you cannot imagine even the Imagination of God, how infinitely more impossible it is to fathom His Reality. To attempt to consider the Big Crunch and little crunches apart from that is to be naive beyond imagination and conception. Science has just not yet fathomed that answer; not that it may not in the future.
God is so absolutely independent in His Beyond-Beyond state that He has no consciousness even of Himself. In that state, although He is the source of power, knowledge, bliss, beauty and wisdom, He is totally unconscious of them and cannot express them in that state. Only when God descends into human form can He express these divine qualities.
Therefore, the moment Creation appeared, the entire cosmos became automatically goal-directed – designed for the sole purpose of evolving self-conscious and eventually God-Self-conscious life. This self-evident fact is missed by scientists, creationists, Darwinists and proponents of intelligent design in considering the origins of the universe and human life.
Meanwhile, David Calder Hardy, I’m sorry you feel so frustrated with the evolving thread of this blog, such that you found it necessary to go take a nap. When you awaken, let’s hope we’re still here and not continuing to frustrate you. BTW, there are many lurkers on this blog who have been amused and even gotten something substantial from this wandering dervish thread. ‹(•¿•)›
==

Peter Piazza   June 16th, 2011 6:08 am ET

David , hi, I'm Pete.
If I may recommend , ...I have found a warm cup of milk to be more effective than tea before retiring for the evening.
You know David ,sometimes I get this feeling that when we're "sleeping" we're actually closer to the truth and as such, further from the dross, then when we're not in bed.
Perhaps when we rise from our beds and plant our feet on the floor and stretch we should say, "I think I'll get some sleep know".
Much later, at the end of the day, when we return to our beds yawning and stretching again, we should say, "time to start waking up".
Have you ever been to a boring office meeting you wished you could fall asleep in it?
Have you ever wished you could be "aware" when you're sound asleep? I wonder what that must feel like.
Yeah , ...it may just be that milk is the answer to everything.
Babies suckle up milk to grow into this world, then suckle up milk to grow closer to truth (which is sleeping soundly ).
I think I'm going to start drinking more milk warmed with the fire of love.

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babaelf   July 2nd, 2012 6:40 pm ET

The BIG CRUNCH has always been known to true spritual Masters as the inevitable billions of years reverse reaction to the the BIG BANG - expansion, contraction, expansion, contraction....Picture it if you will as the Creator clapping his hands together, separating them [expansion] and clapping again [contraction] over and over and over and over across the endless infinitude of illusory time in the Universe. Such a sense of humor has He, clapping for Divine Joy over his Creation. Now, if you want to get down to brass tacks on the subject just go to http://www.lordmeher.org and when the page loads up on the left column under search, type in the word: mahpralaya and just see how many references come up. THIS is real education beyond anything Science can ever arrive at...... babaelf

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babaelf   July 12th, 2012 7:12 pm ET

Whoa, Whoa!! I mis-spelled that search word for http://www.lordmeher.org It should have been a search for the word MAHAPRALAYA, not MAHPRALAYA.... MAHA means GREAT.... lovingly, babaelf...you won't regret it...Its a true GASS!

babaelf   July 12th, 2012 7:14 pm ET

Also, I meant to check the box to 'notify me of follow-up comments...yes, please do....I'm still alive here after two years....:)

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babaelf   October 1st, 2012 6:04 pm ET

To repeat what may have been lost track of in this long series of blog comments: In what is called space, numberless universes are continuously created, sustained and destroyed. This procession of creation continues so long as God [ hereafter, substitute UNIVERSAL MIND if you don't like the word God] goes on imagining. When God’s Imagination is suspended, as it is in Eternity when God withdraws Himself into His Sound Sleep State – as a man’s imagination ceases when he is in deep sleep – the Creation is withdrawn and dissolved in Mahapralaya [total collapse]. The Creation–Preservation–Dissolution of the Univese are based on Ignorance.
In fact, there’s no such thing as “creation,” so “preservation” or “dissolution” never actually occur. The very cosmos is founded in the Ignorance that it is a reality; that birth, death, old age, wealth and honor are real. Knowledge knows the cosmos is a dream and that God alone is Real. [See: The Everything and the Nothing, by Meher Baba p.87] Meher Baba continues his narration of the days when one of the five Perfect Masters of the age was helping him to come back down from consciousness of his Original Infinite State to also include awareness of false illusory gross universe. Such balanced awareness in the Avatar is termed the state of Perfection:
"One night at Sakori, Upasni Maharaj and I were sitting in his hut when the topic of counting the universes arose. First Maharaj tried counting them. To count the universes he first had to stop the continuous flow of sanskaric chains that are emerging to count as many universes as possible. To do this, both his mind and the whole force of creation had to be concentrated on stopping the universes.
This is difficult and extremely dangerous. From the Oneness of God, duality is born, and this duality may prove humanly fatal at times. The tension created by such concentration could cause one to drop the body. So when I tried, Maharaj prevented me from stopping the chain-flow.
It really threatened my life. I could have easily died. Maharaj told me, “No Perfect Master was ever successful in this counting, as the flow of direct knowledge is from the Master himself. If it’s stopped to count the universes, there’s a reaction in duality and the Master’s life is in danger.”
How was the universe created? It was automatic. There are innumerable universes which are interlaced with one another; one universe creates another in a chain reaction. These universes are so numerous that even God-Realized Perfect Masters cannot count them, even though Upasni and I both tried. It is astonishing that although the chains [cf. quantum physics and string theories] of these universes come out of the Perfect Master and then merge back into him, they are still uncountable through his physical eyes.
These universes come out of the Sadguru and merge back into him after eons. This is called the Mahapralaya, the total collapse of the universes. When they disappear they’re no longer in gross form, but remain within the Universal Mind. Each individual gross mind then rests in the Universal Mind. Although it’s all an illusion, the individual souls of all beings inhabiting the universes remain within the Universal Mind. Then after eons, evolution restarts.
At this point, each incarnate soul gradually takes form as to the level of consciousness it had before the cosmic event of Mahapralaya occurred. For example, in deep sleep you’re unconscious of both your body and the world. For you, this is dissolution or pralaya. When you awaken, creation begins again for you. You come back and the world again exists to you. This is individual dissolution, but Mahapralaya happens universally.
It is the same as individual dissolution, except that here all universes dissolve; so it is called Mahapralaya – Maha meaning great. Briefly, this happens every day in an individual’s sound sleep state, and after ages and ages it happens universally. This is what is meant when it is said in the Koran [and in the New Testament] “On doomsday, everyone will rise up from his grave.” http://www.lordmeher.org pp.988–89 -posted by babaelf Oct.1, 2012

babaelf   October 1st, 2012 6:13 pm ET

PS - whoever would have guessed it unless it were directly revealed by the Avatar. This is a bit beyond Science's ability to know.... There have been millions of Mahaplayayas in the endless past. Science, at best, can only guess at the universe's re-booting after the last Mahapralaya -babaelf