SciTechBlog   « Back to Blog Main
December 9, 2009

Military purchases 2,200 PS3s

Posted: 11:14 AM ET

It seems generous grandmothers aren't the only ones purchasing PlayStation 3 (PS3) consoles this holiday season. The U.S. Dept. of Defense has announced plans to buy an additional 2,200 PS3s to complement a military supercomputer cluster running on 336 PS3 systems.

The military purchase was likely encouraged by Sony's recent PS3 price cut, which brought the price of a single console down to $299.

A military justification of review document explains the decision:

Though a single 3.2 GHz cell processor can deliver over 200 GFLOPS, whereas the Sony PS3 configuration delivers approximately 150 GFLOPS, the approximately tenfold cost difference per GFLOP makes the Sony PS3 the only viable technology for HPC applications.

According to Ars Technica, Sony sells the PS3 at a loss and hopes to make back the difference by selling games and accessories.

The reason that the PS3 is a more cost-effective way to buy Cell-powered GFLOPS than, say, the Cell blades that IBM actually makes specifically for supercomputing applications, is that the consoles come with a big, fat subsidy from Sony.

However, the military isn't likely to purchase any games for these PlayStations. The justification review states the systems will run a proprietary Linux-based operating system, which probably won't be able to play Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2.

Posted by:
Filed under: consumer tech • Games • Gaming


Share this on:
Teddy   December 12th, 2009 12:21 pm ET

hardly surprising. gaming platforms these days are so ridiculously powerful. Many universities are using ps3's as a supercomputer platform.


James Waaramaa   December 12th, 2009 2:47 pm ET

1 ps3 is 1% as powerful as a brain. maybe pentagon has found a way to link them all together to form a super pc?!


Brendan   December 12th, 2009 6:46 pm ET

The military has always been prudent with our money. Its the politicians and interest groups that waste money. They need to feed their people to keep their power.

If we were told that the DOD was doing this under the Bush administration and not Obama, the left would be up in arms. And fyi, the money that multi-national corporations goes to their HQ home country, if GM makes money over seas it doesn't go directly to China even though the Chinese own most of our debt by purchasing bonds, which when they expire we pay out. It's called the Time-flow of money bro, and a dollar today is going to be worth $2 tomorrow.


purewebdev   December 12th, 2009 8:47 pm ET

I'm going to put linux on my ps3 as well. I'd been meaning to do it for a while. This way, I'll have full flash and multimedia support for things that the ps3 doesn't currently support. Some type of live linux that I don't have to install would be good.


albert g.   December 12th, 2009 10:20 pm ET

and not forgetting they can easily transport these innocent looking ps3 into war zone (each chosen soldiers are given the task to bring with them 1 ps3 )and link them up together and use it as the core /supercomputer of their portable command center when in need or it can be a distributed command center..........or.... Distributed and Integrated Defense System๐Ÿ™‚ ...


lurking   December 13th, 2009 5:07 am ET

Wow, always amazing to see all the clueless comments on a technology article. Some of you get it, but the rest...oy, thanks for sharing the dumb.


Dennis   December 13th, 2009 10:29 am ET

I would venture to answer Sandra's question like this – none.
I spent 20 years in the military and I have to say, the last 13 years in civilian life has been a disappointment. I have to add, I'm living in Western Europe, not the US. From what I've seen, the military's accountability is several levels above civilian life in general. Ethics aside, the Army assumed the worst in people and left little to chance as a consequence. I think most mismanagement and misappropriation occurred at government levels outside the military (even though it's 'military' spending. Less oversight.
And now that this purchase has been made so public, lots of people are going to try and make sure nothing goes wrong on their watch.
CYA may not be noble, but it sure can be effective.


reznil   December 13th, 2009 11:55 am ET

Lets look at wattage usage: about 200 watts per console, 2,536 consoles total, equals 507,200 watts! At about 11 cents per kilowatt-hour (average DC-area industrial rate) equals $55 an hour to run, or about $40,000 per month.


STERLING   December 13th, 2009 5:46 pm ET

So many ps3's yet i bet some of them will end up in someone's house for their kids or something and why would they go as far as mentioning call of duty modern warfare2 lol


Simply Reg   December 13th, 2009 8:51 pm ET

So the next war would be XBOX nets vs PS3 nets? LOL


Esmilio   December 13th, 2009 11:58 pm ET

"the systems will run a proprietary Linux-based operating system"

This does not imply its pre installed on the ps3's. Pretty sure it means the military is going to Wipe it and load their own software onto it...


lazywoodson   December 14th, 2009 9:55 am ET

y dont they just use xboxes insted of ps3s


ryan   December 14th, 2009 10:52 am ET

Why did they purchase 2,200, and plan to purchase an additional 2,200, when they only need 336 for the Super Computer cluster?

Hmmmm...


Sean.T   December 14th, 2009 2:25 pm ET

I wonder what Sony is planning next. The business model for the PS3 (as well as almost every other console) is to give away the hardware and make money selling games. With the DOD pulling the hardware off of the game playing market someone in marketing at Sony must be beating their head against the wall.


Anonymous   December 14th, 2009 8:21 pm ET

These are some of the most idiotic and stupid comments I have ever read on any gaming topic. Other than the comment by SGM, all of your comments should be deleted; these are all just ignorant. Lame.


Mike B   December 14th, 2009 10:46 pm ET

IF YOU READ the LINKED PROCUREMENT DOCUMENT:

The document linked in this article seems to indicate they will be purchasing full systems (bundled – with Uncharted – Drake's Fortune) with 160G HD and DualShock3 wireless controller. This is based on this part number listed:
"Procurement of 2,200 Sony PlayStation 3 (PS3) 160GB Console Systems, Part Number: 98038"

google the sony part # !!

Maybe you'll see the controllers sold off by the GAO as surplus. And what a waste of the BD players. I doubt that they will dismantle the console, as they want the supplier to handle the 1 yr warrantee from Sony! It seems they are insisting on this model based on the 336 unit cluster (53 Tflop) that was the pilot and what the development was done on. This saves time and $$ on porting, and re-development.

The article further specifies that they are planning a 2116 unit cluster – which I figure to be about 330 Tflops – so I guess they're gonna have some spares, or enough for another small cluster for testing software changes. (or maybe Presents for the Staff?)

Based on the numbers quoted, it doesn't seem that they are bothering to use the GPU power in available processing, but are just using the (7) SPE cores. Networking the GPUs might be part of the issue. Well worth the effort if someone could figure out how to overlay networked GPUs as another supercomputer on top of the main SPE cell cluster.

The power, space and cooling is what's the killer on this deal. All those Power Supplies and powered up circuitry they don't need are going to cost dearly. I don't know how long they plan to run this supercomputer, but I suspect that the $ invested in the IBM blades might pay itself back in power, cooling and space over a relatively short period of time.

I just wish I was the retailer selling these to the govt.


Dude - Get a brain   December 15th, 2009 2:30 am ET

They use PS3's for the network because commercially written software is already available for networking Cell based processor networks. Rumor has it the PS3's being supplied lack a Bios chip, Blueray drive, Hard drive, all cables (except power) and controller, possibly not even the case as rack mount adapters are available. As for people who mention about increasing the ram, obviously they have no idea on how parallel processing works. 256mb is more than ample, and most network computers used much less. In reality if you need more than a few megabytes per system, you are running servers and not creating a super computer. They are buying just the mother boards silly boys and girls.


Let_Chaos_Reign   December 15th, 2009 12:41 pm ET

No respawns in real life!


John   December 15th, 2009 6:14 pm ET

Exactly. The DOD isn't going to be buying video games. They just want the motherboard and processor.

Actually this is a pretty smart move by the United States: the U.S. military expands its war-driving supercomputer at the expense of the Japanese manufacturer Sony. Sony subsidizes the PS3 to keep the hardware costs down and in the range of most consumers.

http://www.datacenterfix.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=70


Lets Flow » The 404 Podcast 486: Where Bonnie is not Nicole   December 15th, 2009 11:07 pm ET

[...] videogaming news, the Pentagon is buying up 2,200 PlayStation 3s. No, they aren't using it to train soldiers with "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare [...]


Bryan   December 16th, 2009 1:58 am ET

I didn't think the new redesigned PS3's could run Linux. Is the Military buying older ones? The pic shows 60GB stations so maybe. lol..still, pretty cool.


Nick   December 16th, 2009 10:04 am ET

I think it is pretty neat that military is using this type of technology, i was never a fan of the PS3, I have always been a XBOX user from Day one. Perhaps the Military is not aware that the XBOX 360 is being used by doctors to help detect heart defects:

http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1925332,00.html


Michael S.   December 16th, 2009 11:26 am ET

The DoD isn't worried if the new models won't run Linux, because I would think they are buying the PS3 to harvest the parts, to integrate into their existing server racks. That's my guess, but if a 200 gigaflop processor is 4000 USD, then I would buy the PS3 too. (a PS3 is $2 US per gigaflop. Tenfold of that, $20 US. 200 gflops x $20 = $4000 US per GFlop.) That is wise spending by the DoD. Buy the $300 node, scrap the $4000 node.


Jacen   December 16th, 2009 4:25 pm ET

I'm glad the boys and girls of the armed forces have a device which can play games that can distract the depressed mind into virtual alternative worlds! Maybe we'll begin making our own gmaing machines which are less disgusting and more reminding of positive or non-violent or sexist themed video games filled with temptation. Hopefully they will have fun with their modable devices anyway. Most likely outside viruses like the virus enemies of the War in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan are already using on US computers to see everyday life will now target PS3s and PS3 operating systems or logic boards. That would be too bad if hundreds of children had their X-Mas toys broken because of the War in the middle East, I guess we could all loose something special because of the War, a childs happiness via a 200x computer (compared to an 87 Atari) or more souls in the War that can be stopped but how can we even celebrate while other people are dying by the score for revenge for New York with no target or plans to ever stop the killing. Makes you wonder if other animals evolved if they would be as war like or use technology to scar the Earth during hopelessness, one way or another a virus isn't going to help the soul of the sun or the "Mayan* synchronistic Intergalactic Sol or God, only cause more spiritual pain, like not listening to the suffering of Robert Johnson at the crossroads, there has to be a way to change, we can't pay for our leader's mistakes. Neither a virus or a virus can stop the war machine, only a mass protest (neverendin) that might never be over is as applaudable option for the powerless or helpless here with Earth. Or maybe a computer class that has to work for your computer to work educating on the dangers of war in the middle East or elseware. Or maybe a nicE vudeo game that could encourage bringing home the Army and helping rebuild the temples and shrines and schools and houses in thoses areas we have demolished in the past 8 years, but we can't give them an extra life. Have they been forbidden to witness the comming miracle by our foriegn government? Twas as tricky as passing nuclear waste between Canada and Us.
.


danworkstopayforthisstuff   December 16th, 2009 7:58 pm ET

DOD bargain shopping? That's a new one...


Steve J   December 17th, 2009 12:56 am ET

For all those who don't know (and keep wildly guessing), these are older 160GB PS3 models that used to only be available in bundle packages.

They run Linux (as long as there's a PPC distro) and are being used in clusters all over the place (Sony even runs the WARHAWK online servers on them). They ARE NOT being salvaged for parts, 'custom units' or other idiotic nonsense people keep making up on here.


Su4v3   December 17th, 2009 1:17 pm ET

Don't be stupid PEOPLE! They're not buying video games, they're buying computers! It's cheaper then if they buy a "conventional" computer!


The Chris   December 17th, 2009 1:25 pm ET

I wonder how the Japanese government feels about one of its company's products being used to make war. We have embargoes on tech products being shipped to other countries so they don't use them for military purposes.


MGrant   December 21st, 2009 7:44 am ET

Hey, can somebody build me a PS3-based computer? I'd pay for this!!!! I don't need anything spectaular, just the OS installed on the hardrive and ports so I can connect peripherals...any help?!


The Reader   December 21st, 2009 8:58 am ET

These comments are worse than Youtube comments, in terms of idiotic statements. The comment section of these articles are pointless now that "uniformed" people write about things they have no idea about. It's like a 5 year old kid giving a lecture on human ethics.


l_dopa   December 21st, 2009 10:04 am ET

The military could just buy the processors for the super computing. What do they need the whole console for?? Perhaps so they can use them as simulators?


SILENT_WARIOR   December 21st, 2009 11:05 am ET

SOUNDS LIKE SOME SORT OF MILITARY TRAINNING FOR YOUNGSTER WITH HIGH SCORES ON VIDEO GAMES LIKE TO TEST THERE SKILLS AND PREPARE THEM FOR WAR


Spooly-T   December 21st, 2009 11:14 am ET

Sony and Microsoft both sell consoles at a lost.

Sony is willing to sell PS3 at a lost because it's investing/betting on winning the Blu-Ray format war.

All I know is everyone I know w/ Xbox360 is on their 2nd or 3rd. I still have same PS3 and it does everything I need.

How can something that has such high failure rate be a better product? Does these folks feel the same when it come to airlines crashing planes?


Smart Kid's Parent   December 23rd, 2009 12:52 am ET

Hand picked smart kids, about 2190, with fast fingers, like my 9 year old, will be given these consoles this Christmas so they can, on their own, learn to control the drones and bring them baddies down. No cost to the mil. in training...kids'll have fun and make em big Santa fans.

Have a Very Merry Christmas you all and stay warm.

God bless America and let there be peace, love, beauty, fragrance and music.


Joe   January 20th, 2010 5:15 pm ET

I don't know what to say to most of you. Anybody that runs dedicated servers for anything, whether it be websites, databases, supercomputing, or even games, knows that a Playstation 3 console is the way to go. This is simply because the PS3 does exactly what a $10,000 server does for $299. Maybe you all should look at facts before you post your random idiotic comments about something you know nothing about. The Playstation 3 not only comes with the ability to play games, but also has a proprietary Linux build. This Linux build can be used for any kind of server the military or private corporation would need. Get facts before you speak so you don't look like donkeys. I guess I would complain that they're saving my tax dollars by spending $299 per console rather than $10,000 per server box. SHAME ON YOU FOR SAVING MY TAX DOLLARS!

And a reply to Spooly-T:

The fact of the matter is that Xbox has many more Xbox specific series' that are better than anything Sony has. My point being proved by the fact that Final Fantasy is now no longer a Sony specific game. And why do you think people keep replacing their Xbox? Because it's awful? Ok, you also need to think before you speak friend.


rick   January 29th, 2010 10:02 pm ET

Come on Redstorm.....if not for the gop their wouldnt be much of a military...all of your tax dollars would go to welfare instead....which you would be on because you would be unemployed!


ForceDisconnect » Blog Archive » PS3 and Linux are breaking up April 1st   March 29th, 2010 8:35 am ET

[...] console. So, if you're one of the few out there using your PS3 as a Linux computer, or the U.S. Military, you may want to skip the update that's coming up. Why disable the feature now? The article [...]


Left to chance » Sony Steals Feature From Your PlayStation 3   March 31st, 2010 1:03 am ET

[...] to use PS3 consoles as compute nodes for a scientific supercomputer. The U.S. Army did just that, buying more than 2,000 PS3s to build a supercomputer. Lots of hobbyists also made use of the Other OS feature, using it to [...]


Sony Steals Feature From Your PlayStation 3 | We Want Information   March 31st, 2010 12:36 pm ET

[...] to use PS3 consoles as compute nodes for a scientific supercomputer. The U.S. Army did just that, buying more than 2,000 PS3s to build a supercomputer. Lots of hobbyists also made use of the Other OS feature, using it to [...]


sony decides we don’t need linux on the ps3 « long haired boy   March 31st, 2010 8:54 pm ET

[...] what about the other applications? the military bought 2200 of these shiny black boxes in order to compliment their supercomputing systems. why did they [...]


Hypertension Medicines : Buy Online Viagra, Cialis, Levitra   April 2nd, 2010 10:11 am ET

[...] to use PS3 consoles as compute nodes for a scientific supercomputer.The U.S.Army did just that, buying more than 2,000 PS3s to build a supercomputer – hypertension medicines.Lots of hobbyists also made use of the [...]


Marc   September 2nd, 2010 5:58 am ET

That's an interesting approach to save money on hardware. I never thought you could use consoles like the PS3 to actually build a cluster of super-computers.

At first I thought it must have been a trick to conceal that the army buys game consoles for their soldiers but since they don't buy any games it must be the real deal.

Best regards

http://www.starcraft2strategyguidereview.net/star2pros-review


The curious case of the PSJailbreak | Brendan Hohenadel's Blog   October 21st, 2010 7:50 pm ET

[...] taking the otherOS option away (The U.S. Army even voiced it's unhappiness, as it had built a 2200 cluster of Playstation 3's running linux) . ย Sony responded to the release of the PSJailbreak by also releasing a firmware update that [...]


604 BC Players Thread   November 27th, 2010 12:13 am ET

[...] that the millions of people who choose the PS3 over the 360 are intellectually inferior to you. Military purchases 2,200 PS3s – SciTechBlog – CNN.com Blogs Reply With Quote + Reply to [...]


jim   December 6th, 2010 12:54 pm ET

These were bought by the Air Force Research Lab in Rome, NY, to do high performance supercomputing research projects. Max bang for the buck.


US Air Force using PS3's as super computer   December 6th, 2010 6:11 pm ET

[...] using PS3's as super computer Old news but good to hear! Here's a few articles about it: Military purchases 2,200 PS3s – SciTechBlog – CNN.com Blogs Air Force Buys 300 PlayStation 3 for Research This is one reason why I bought the PS3! Because I [...]


Patent Reveals Sony to Increase PS3 Power via External Processor - Page 4 - PSX PS2 PS3 Scene Modchip & Jailbreak Community   December 11th, 2010 1:24 pm ET

[...] [...]


Military Flags   December 28th, 2010 7:21 am ET

The military has always played a decisive role in the history of our nation.

For more details visit us at
http://tagsnflags.com/


The US Military are PS3 Fanboys | GamerPops   April 9th, 2011 9:04 pm ET

[...] Modern Warfare 2 joke here. It's too easy, so I refuse to.Read the rest of the article here: http://scitech.blogs.cnn.com/2009/12/09/military-purchases-2200-ps3s/ blog comments powered by Disqus /*');/*]]>*/ new TWTR.Widget({ version: 2, type: 'profile', rpp: [...]


Xbox720   September 6th, 2011 12:51 am ET

The original PlayStation released in December 1994 was the first of the ubiquitous PlayStation series of console and hand-held game devices. It has included successor consoles and upgrades including the Net Yaroze (a special black PlayStation with tools and instructions to program PlayStation games and applications), "PSone"


Pharmg857   September 8th, 2011 4:39 pm ET

Hello! bebfagf interesting bebfagf site! I'm really like it! Very, very bebfagf good!


Pharme967   September 8th, 2011 4:40 pm ET

Very nice site!


Pharmf714   September 8th, 2011 4:40 pm ET

Hello! ddedeef interesting ddedeef site! I'm really like it! Very, very ddedeef good!


Pharmd771   September 8th, 2011 4:41 pm ET

Very nice site!


roger   September 12th, 2011 9:12 pm ET

In 2007, Bill Gates introduced the OQO model 02 in his keynote at CES 2007. The OQO model 02 is now shipping with a 5-inch/12.7-cm screen, EV-DO WWAN, Bluetooth, 802.11 a/b/g WiFi, running Microsoft Windows XP and Vista. OQO has won quite a few computer and design awards, including Guinness World Records recognition of OQO model 02 as the world's smallest fully functional computer (where a 'computer' means ability to run Windows).


origami mobiles   September 12th, 2011 9:16 pm ET

In August 2007, Raon Digital launched their second UMPC 'Everun' which has built in WiFi and HSDPA. It uses the AMD Geode (processor) LX900. Everun is introduced as the UMPC with the longest battery lifeโ€”as much as 6โ€“7 hours with its standard battery and 12 hours with a large battery. Unlike its previous model 'VEGA', Everun has a full qwerty key pad, aesthetically similar to a Smartphone, which appeals to the mobile commuter.


Best Wholesale Deals   October 19th, 2011 6:59 pm ET

I enjoy your web page and its design. You do a good job here; keep up the fine work.


acquistare anabolizzanti in linea   December 5th, 2011 11:45 am ET

E 'davvero un pezzo fresco e utile di informazioni. Sono soddisfatto che hai condiviso queste informazioni utili con noi. Si prega di soggiorno ci ha informato come questo. Grazie per la condivisione sul scitech.blogs.cnn.com


Why Apple (and Sony, Amazon, Microsoft etc.) Should Support Jailbreaking | Electronic Frontier Foundation   December 5th, 2011 12:56 pm ET

[...] to run them as an inexpensive alternative to a desktop. Researchers, and even the U.S. military, turned clusters of PS3s into powerful supercomputers back when Sony supported the installation of alternative operating [...]


William McGraw   December 9th, 2011 8:34 pm ET

OMG, do you see whats taking place in Syria? In spite of a brutal government crackdown, the manifestations continue


Why Apple (and Sony, Amazon, Microsoft etc.) Should Support Jailbreaking | GrassrootsHeadlines.com   December 10th, 2011 6:03 am ET

[...] to run them as an inexpensive alternative to a desktop. Researchers, and even the U.S. military, turned clusters of PS3s into powerful supercomputers back when Sony supported the installation of alternative operating [...]


Deca-Durabolin   December 11th, 2011 8:14 am ET

Per quanto riguarda la condivisione delle informazioni con noi scitech.blogs.cnn.com.


Elizabeth Rogers   December 14th, 2011 3:55 am ET

Hah, Italy protesters rally against Berlusconi


porno   December 20th, 2011 10:07 pm ET

Ajer ner blogi yajez 547 handi๐Ÿ™‚ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช


pornocentral   December 26th, 2011 1:54 pm ET

Download new porno porno; sex


Eber Morales de Leon   January 13th, 2012 1:47 am ET

A Review Of The Xbox Kinect Console! Top Three Strategies for Selecting an External Xbox 360 Hard Drive; What Is A Toslink Optical Cable?Get Your Own Box !


last minute gรผnstige reisen   April 3rd, 2012 2:32 pm ET

Fantastic goods from you, man. I have consider your stuff prior to and you are simply too excellent. I actually like what you have received right here, really like what you are stating and the way in which through which you are saying it. You make it enjoyable and you continue to care for to stay it sensible. I can not wait to learn far more from you. That is really a terrific web site.


aloe vera uses   April 3rd, 2012 4:34 pm ET

Hey There. I found your blog the usage of msn. This is an extremely well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and come back to read extra of your helpful information. Thanks for the post. I will definitely return.


business entrepreneurs   April 20th, 2012 1:55 pm ET

Thanks , I've just been looking for information about this topic for a long time and yours is the greatest I've discovered till now. However, what in regards to the conclusion? Are you certain about the source?|What i do not understood is if truth be told how you are now not really a lot more well-appreciated than you may be now. You're so intelligent.


Kinect May Be Coming To A Military Helicopter Near You | WebProNews   May 7th, 2012 5:06 pm ET

[...] games and the hardware that powers them. They use them as recruiting tools, training simulations, computer processors and now 3D tracking devices. It seems that the military has its eye on the Kinect hardware that [...]


No mรกs Linux en PS3   May 13th, 2012 10:26 am ET

[...] que el poder de procesamiento de esta consola es excelente en relaciรณn a su precio, y hasta el Ejรฉrcito de Estados Unidos comprรณ alrededor de 2000 consolas por este motivo (el procesador CELL es el mismo del IBM Roadrunner, una de las supercomputadoras mรกs rรกpidas del [...]


lolafopo   June 9th, 2012 6:38 pm ET

ะญะบะพะดะพะผ ะธ ะตะณะพ ั…ะฐั€ะฐะบั‚ะตั€ะธัั‚ะธะบะธ.


ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืœื”ื•ื‘ืœื”   June 30th, 2012 7:49 am ET

ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืœื”ื•ื‘ืœื”? ื—ื•ืฉืฉื™ื ืœืฉืœืžื•ืช ื”ืชื›ื•ืœื”? ืžืชืงืฉื™ื ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžื•ืขื“ืคืช? ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช. ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช. ืื ื—ื ื• ืžื‘ืงืฉื™ื ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ืœื›ื ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ืฉื™ืืคืฉืจ ืœื›ื ืœืฉื›ื‘ ืœื™ืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉืงื˜ โ€“ ื‘ืชื—ื•ืฉื” ื•ื‘ื™ื“ื™ืขื” ื›ื™ ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื”ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉืช ืชื™ืขืฉื” ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช, ื‘ื–ื”ื™ืจื•ืช, ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืงืคื™ื“ื”.

ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืขืกืงืช ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืชืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื’ื“ืœื•ืช ื‘ืžืฉืง, ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืœ ืขืœ ื•ืื—ืจื•ืช, ืžื‘ืฆืขืช ืžืฉืœื•ื—ื™ื ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืฆื™ื•ื“ ื ื“ืจืฉ. ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžืฆื™ืขื” ื•ืžืกืคืงืช ื’ื ื›ืœื™ื ืœืืจื™ื–ื” ื•ืขืœ ืคื™ ื“ืจื™ืฉื” ืžื‘ืฆืขืช ืืช ื”ืืจื™ื–ื”, ืืช ื”ืขืžืกืช ื”ืฆื™ื•ื“, ืคืจื™ืงืชื• ื•ืกื™ื“ื•ืจื•, ื›ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉ, ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื”ื—ื“ืฉ.

ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืœื ื•ืžืœื•ืื•. ื”ืŸ ืื™ื ืŸ ืจืง ื”ืขื‘ืจื” ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื, ืืœื ืฉื•ืจื” ืฉืœืžื” ืฉืœ ืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืฆืจื™ื›ื•ืช ืœื”ื™ืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื”ื™ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืกืจ ืžืกื•ื™ืžื™ื, ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื–ื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืžื•ืคืœื’ื•ืช, ื‘ืจื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช, ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืช ืœืœื ืคืฉืจื•ืช. ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื ื–ืงืงื™ื ืœื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ืจื•ืจื™ื ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื”ื™ืจื™ื“ื” ืœืคืจื˜ื™ื ื”ื˜ื›ื ื™ื™ื ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ื›ืš. ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ื”ืžื—ื•ื™ื‘ืช ืœืœื ืคืฉืจื•ืช ื•ืœืœื ืชื ืื™ ืœืœืงื•ื—ื•ืชื™ื” ื™ื•ื“ืขืช ื•ืคื•ืขืœืช ื‘ื”ื ื—ืช-ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ืช ืœืคื™ื” โ€“ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ืงื˜ื ื•ืช. ื’ื ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ืงืฆืจื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช โ€“ ื•ื‘ืฆื“ืง! โ€“ ืืช ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ืœื”ืคื’ื™ืŸ ื•ืœืžืฆื•ืช ืืช ื›ืœ ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืชื™ื” ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืช. ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ืฉื•ืœื™ื•ืช. ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช 'ืขืœ ื”ื“ืจืš'. ื›ืืฉืจ ืœืงื•ื— ืžื–ืžื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื”ื•ื ืจืื•ื™ ื•ื–ื›ืื™ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืฆืคื” ืœื•.

ืฉื™ืงื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช

ื”ืžื—ื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ืคืงื˜ื•ืจ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื•ืœื’ื™ื˜ื™ืžื™ ืœืจืฆื•ืช ืœื”ื•ื–ื™ืœ ืืช ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื”ืขื‘ืจื”, ืื‘ืœ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืœื ืื—ืช ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื”ื•ืคืš ืœืฉื™ืงื•ืœ ืžืจื›ื–ื™ โ€“ ื”ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืฉื’ื•ื™ื”. ืื ืืชื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื•ื•ื“ื ื›ื™ ืชื›ื•ืœืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื•ื ื”ืžืฉืจื“ ื™ื™ืฉืžืจื• ื‘ืฉืœืžื•ืชื ื•ืœื ื™ื™ื ื–ืงื•, ื•ื“ืื™ ืชื–ื“ืงืงื• ืœืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ื•ืืžื™ื ื”, ืฉื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื”. ืืชื ื•ื“ืื™ ืชืจืฆื• ืœื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืืชื ืžืคืงื™ื“ื™ื ืจื›ื•ืฉ ื™ืงืจ, ืืฉืจ ื™ืฉ ื‘ื•, ื›ืžืฉื•ืขืจ ื•ื›ืฆืคื•ื™, ืคืจื™ื˜ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœื ื™ืกื•ืœืื• ื‘ืคื–, ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืžื™ ืฉืืžื•ื ื™ื ื•ืžื™ื•ืžื ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ืœืœื ื“ื•ืคื™ ื•ืœืœื ืคืฉืจื•ืช.

ื›ืžื• ื‘ืขืœ ืขื ืฃ ื’ื ืœืขื ืฃ ื–ื” ื—ื•ื“ืจื™ื ืœื ืื—ืช ืฉืจืœื˜ื ื™ื ื”ืคื•ืขืœื™ื ืœืœื ืื™ืฉื•ืจื™ื ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื, ืขื ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืœื ืžืชืื™ื ืœืืจื™ื–ื” ื•ืœื”ื•ื‘ืœื”, ื‘ื”ืขื“ืจ ื™ื“ืข ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืœืคืจื•ืง ืืช ื”ืชื›ื•ืœื”. ื—ืืคืจื™ื ืืœื” ื™ื™ืžื ืขื• ื‘ื˜ืขื ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืžื—ืชื™ืžื” ืขืœ ื—ื•ื–ื”, ื”ื™ืžื ืขื•ืช ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื ื›ืฉืœืขืฆืžื” ืืžื•ืจื” ืœื”ื“ืœื™ืง ืืฆืœื›ื ืืช ื ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืื–ื”ืจื” ื›ื™ ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืื ืฉื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ื’ื“ืจืช ื ื›ืœื ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ืžืขื˜ื” ืฉืขื•ืฉื” ืขืžื ื—ืกื“.

ืžืงืฆื•ืขื ื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ื™ืชื ื• ืœื›ื ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช, ื™ืขื’ื ื• ืืช ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื‘ื—ื•ื–ื” ืžื•ืกื›ื. ื™ืกื“ื™ืจื• ืืช ื ื•ืฉื ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื—. ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžื•ืฆื“ืง ื•ืœื’ื™ื˜ื™ืžื™ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ืœื‘ืงืฉ ื”ืžืœืฆื•ืช ืขืœื™ื”. ืืœ ืชื”ืกืกื• ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืื ืฉื™ื ืฉื”ืกืชื™ื™ืขื• ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื”. ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื’ื ืžืžื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ืฉื‘ืขื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืชืจื•ื ืœื›ื ืžื ื™ืกื™ื•ื ื ื›ืš ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื™ืžื ืข ืžื˜ืขื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื”ื ืขืฉื•.

ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื—ื•ืชืžื™ื ื—ื•ื–ื” ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื™ื“ืจืฉ ืœืฉื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืกืขื™ืคื™ื ื•ื‘ื”ื: ืœื•ื— ื–ืžื ื™ื ื•ืงื‘ื™ืขืช ืคื™ืฆื•ื™ ืข ื—ืจื™ื’ื” ืžืžื ื•, ืจื™ืฉื™ื•ืŸ, ื–ืžื™ื ื•ืช, ื•ืชืง, ืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœื‘ืฆืข ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ืœื ืฉื’ืจืชื™ื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื“. ืื’ื‘, ืื ืืชื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืฉืœื•ื˜ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื•ืœืชื–ืžืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืžื•ืขื“ ื”ื ื•ื— ืœื›ื, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืชื‘ืจืจื• ืืช ื”ืคืจืฉื™ ื”ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื•ื ื•ืช. ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžื—ื™ืจื™ื ืžืืžื™ืจื™ื.

ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ื‘ื™ืช

ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืชื” ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื” ื ืžื“ื“ืช ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื. ื”ืฉืชื“ืœื• ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืคื’ื™ืฉื” ืขื ื ืฆื™ื’ ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื›ื, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœืืžื•ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื˜ื— ื•ืืช ื”ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืฉื™ื™ื“ืจืฉ ืœื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื”. ื‘ื™ืงื•ืจ ืžืงื“ื™ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ื“ืจืš ื”ื’ื™ืฉื” ืืœ ื”ื“ื™ืจื” ืงืฉื” ืื• ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื ืžืžื•ืงืžืช ื‘ืงื•ืžื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื“ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื›ื•ืœืœืช ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืืฉืจ ื™ื™ืชื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ื™ื“ืจืฉ ืžื ื•ืฃ ืœื”ืขื‘ืจืชื•. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืืช ื”ืฉื˜ื— ืžื‘ืขื•ื“ ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ื‘ื›ืš ืœื”ืงืœ ื”ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ื”ืŸ ืขืœื™ื›ื.

ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช, ื›ืืžื•ืจ ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืœื ืžืœื. ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืขืœื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื•ืืฃ ืœืคื ื™ื”, ืœื›ืŸ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื”ื™ืขืจืš ืžื‘ืขื•ื“ ืžื•ืขื“ ืœื›ืœ ืžืฆื‘ ืืคืฉืจื™. ืžืื—ืจ ืฉื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื – ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืื• ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืขืœื•ืœื™ื – ืœื”ืชืจื—ื‘ ื‘ืžืขื‘ืจ ืžื ืงื•ื“ื” ื' ืœื ืงื•ื“ื” ื‘', ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืขื’ืŸ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืกืขื™ืคื™ื ื”ื›ืจื•ื›ื™ื ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื”ื•ื‘ืœืช ืชื›ื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืื• ืžืฉืจื“ ื‘ื—ื•ื–ื” ื—ืชื•ื.

ืื ื—ื ื• ืœื ืžืชื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื•ืจื™ื“ ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ื™ืจื— ืžื”ืฉืžื™ื (ื‘ื™ื ื™ื ื•, ืœื ืขื“ื™ืฃ ืฉื™ื™ืฉืืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื•?) ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืงืฉื•ืจ ืœื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช, ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืื ืฉื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืžืื•ืžื ื™ื ื‘ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช, ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ื™ื“ืข ื•ื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ื•ืงื‘ืœื•ืช ืžื•ื›ื—ื•ืช ืขืœ ื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ืœืœื ื“ื•ืคื™, ืœืฉื‘ื™ืขื•ืช ืจืฆื•ื ื ื”ืžืœืื” ืฉืœ ื”ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช.

ืฉืืœื•ืช ืขืœ ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช

ืืชื ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ื•ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื‘ื• ื˜ื‘ืขื™ ื•ืœื’ื™ื˜ื™ืžื™ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ื›ืœ ืฉืืœื” ืฉืขื•ืœื” ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื›ื. ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื–ืžื ืช ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื™ืฉ ื–ืžืŸ ืžืกืคื™ืง (ืืœื ืขื ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืœื”ืชื‘ืฆืข ื‘ื ื•ื”ืœ ืžืงืฆื•ืจ ื•ืื•ืœื™ ืืฃ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžื™ื™ื“ื™, ืœืืœืชืจ) ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ืฉืขื•ืœื•ืช ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื›ื. ืื™ืŸ ืฉืืœื•ืช ืžื™ื•ืชืจื•ืช ืื• ื˜ื™ืคืฉื™ื•ืช, ื•ื“ืื™ ืœื ื›ืืฉืจ ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื›ืกืฃ ืฉืœื›ื. ืœื’ื™ื˜ื™ืžื™ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ื’ื ืขืœ ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื•ื”ืื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื•ื–ื™ืœ ืืช ืขืœื•ืชื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื–ื• ืื• ืื—ืจืช.

ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ื ื˜ืจืก ืฉืœ ื”ืœืงื•ื— ื•ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื”ื•ื ืื™ื ื˜ืจืก ืžืฉื•ืชืฃ. ืฉื ื™ ื”ืฆื“ื“ื™ื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืฉื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ืชืชื‘ืฆืข ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ืžื”ื™ืจ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื‘ื™ืกื•ื“ื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืช; ืฉืœื ื™ื™ื ื–ืง ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืœื ื™ืื‘ื“; ืฉื›ืืฉืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืช ื›ืœ ื”ืชื›ื•ืœื” ื”ืžื•ืขื‘ืจืช ืชื•ืขื‘ืจ ื‘ืฉืœืžื•ืชื”, ืชื™ืคืจืง ืžื”ืžืฉืื™ืช ื‘ื–ื”ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืฉื”ื‘ื™ืช ืื• ื”ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ืจื•ื”ื˜ื• ื•ื™ืฆื•ื™ื“ื• ื‘ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืฉื”ื•ืขื‘ืจ.

ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืชื›ื ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ืฆืข ื›ืžืขื˜ ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ, ืื‘ืœ ืื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื›ื ืฉื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื”ืžืชื•ื›ื ื ืช ืชื™ืขืฉื” ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืžืกื•ื™ื โ€“ ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœืชืื ืื•ืชื” ืžื‘ืขื•ื“ ืžื•ืขื“. ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื›ื™ ืื™ื ื›ื ื”ืœืงื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจืช ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ืืฉืจ ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ื—ื‘ืจื” ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ื•ืื˜ืจืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช, ืืฉืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืงื•ืฉ ืœืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ื”. ืœื ืจืง ืืชื, ืžืชื‘ืจืจ, ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ืกืชื™ื™ืข ื‘ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ื”ื•ื‘ืœื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ืฉืงื˜

ืื ืฉื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืžืงื•ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื•ื ื–ืงืงื™ื ืœื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช. ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžืฆื™ืขื•ืช ืฉื™ืจื•ืช. ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื‘ืฉืœ ื”ื–ืžื™ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื•ืช ืงืœ "ืœื™ืคื•ืœ" ืขืœ ื—ื‘ืจื” ืœื ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ืื• ื›ื–ืืช ืฉืื™ื ื” ืขืจื•ื›ื” ืœืกืคืง ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื‘ื•ืงืฉ. ืœื›ืŸ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื•ืœื”ื“ื’ื™ืฉ ืœืงืจืืช ืกื™ื•ื ื”ืžืืžืจ ืžื” ืฉื ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืชื• ื•ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•: ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื‘ืจืจ ื”ื™ื˜ื‘ ืžื™ ื”ื™ื ื”ื—ื‘ืจื” ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“ืช ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืชื›ื ืœื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื”ื”ื•ื‘ืœื”. ื–ื• ื–ื›ื•ืชื›ื ื•ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ืจื‘ื” ื–ื• ื—ื•ื‘ืชื›ื.

ื .ื‘. ื—ืคืฆื™ ืขืจืš ื™ืงืจื™ื ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ (ื”ืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ื›ืกืคื™ืช ื•ื”ืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ืจื’ืฉื™ืช) ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืืฆืœื›ื ื•ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจื ื‘ืจื›ื‘ ื”ืคืจื˜ื™ ืฉืœื›ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื ืฆืžื•ื“ื™ื ืืœื™ื›ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืฉืš ื”ื ืกื™ืขื”, ืžืื—ืจ ืฉืชืžื™ื“ ืงื™ื™ื ื—ืฉืฉ ืฉืžื ืžืฉื”ื• ื™ื™ืœืš ืœืื™ื‘ื•ื“.

ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื”: ื”ื•ื‘ืœื•ืช ื›ืจื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ืžืืžืฅ, ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช , ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช ื•ืœื ืื—ืช ื’ื ื‘ื›ืื‘ ืจืืฉ. ื ืฉืžื— ืœืคื˜ื•ืจ ืืชื›ื ืžื” ื›ืื‘ ื”ื˜ื•ืจื“ื ื™ ื”ื–ื”.
http://www.isa-group.co.il/


sopfie f   July 8th, 2012 12:08 am ET

You can definitely see your enthusiasm within the work you write. The sector hopes for more passionate writers such as you who aren't afraid to say how they believe. At all times follow your heart.


Funny stuff about consoles   July 27th, 2012 5:39 pm ET

[...] mytabs.setpersist(false) mytabs.setselectedClassTarget("link") mytabs.init() ma intreb daca asta e pe bune Reply With Quote + Reply to Thread « Previous Thread | [...]


ะžะบะพะฝั‡ะฐั‚ะตะปัŒะฝั‹ะน ะฒะทะปะพะผ Sony PS3 | RIS   October 26th, 2012 1:06 pm ET

[...] ั€ะฐัะฟั€ะตะดะตะปั‘ะฝะฝั‹ั… ะฒั‹ั‡ะธัะปะตะฝะธะน. ะšัั‚ะฐั‚ะธ, ะดะฐะถะต ะฐั€ะผะธั ะกะจะ ะบัƒะฟะธะปะฐ ะฑะพะปะตะต 2000 ะฟั€ะธัั‚ะฐะฒะพะบ PS3 ะดะปั ัะบัะฟะตั€ะธะผะตะฝั‚ะฐะปัŒะฝะพะณะพ ะฟั€ะพะตะบั‚ะฐ ั€ะฐัะฟั€ะตะดะตะปั‘ะฝะฝั‹ั… [...]


Cisco Modules   November 6th, 2012 8:05 am ET

My brother suggested I would possibly like this web site. He used to be totally right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine just how so much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!


moody's credit rating scale   November 10th, 2012 3:22 pm ET

Do you have a spam problem on this blog; I also am a blogger, and I was wondering your situation; we have created some nice methods and we are looking to trade solutions with other folks, why not shoot me an email if interested.


Anonymous   January 24th, 2013 9:44 am ET

[...] [...]


how much money was this cms? ovffkjfvua click here :o rczztmlr, :'( wyvusfdrpr http://mxfffncagvvm.info :'( xphttrtvtpuppfn, :/ xugymkhoxw [url=http://mxfffncagvvm.ru]avtnbmmiqq[/url]   April 11th, 2013 10:33 am ET

xwzxtlnrvsnc


this is a great theme gftlpqswqo click here 3:) ireecgmjrjre, :D lkmhnwvbym [url="http://www.hklvgbttkhzt.net"]or here[/url] :-/ yjpmvawj, :D fhfdbowtzg http://hklvgbttkhzt.info :-* yjpmvawj, 8-| abwrdgcfxu [url=http://hklvgbttkhzt.ru]jkhogksjiq[/url] =(   April 14th, 2013 8:45 am ET

igvqlgfnvclr


how much was this site? kpixicdeze click here 3:-) odqjvfygxshn, B| usfqrelecd [url="http://www.lhfdvsonuogg.net"]or here[/url] >:-O odqjvfygxshn, >:o mqecfanuru http://lhfdvsonuogg.info :-D frjeq,   April 14th, 2013 9:20 am ET

qtgqjuxmljyo


magnificent post iqftslgtbj click here ;) gvnwnjqurzywofi, 8-| usirvuxvds [url="http://www.nacbannabibl.net"]or here[/url] ;) xzlcb, >:-O fgylfhbbit http://nacbannabibl.info B| aljgqobrniil, B-| eaoigkmmxc [url=http://nacbannabibl.ru]annjgrczdg[/url] O   April 17th, 2013 10:16 pm ET

tfymxquleygs


thanks for an amazing website bzcmxdvseu click here >:-O hvmvw, B| tljhysvquu [url="http://www.alxxjvppbzav.net"]or here[/url] >:O bhmgwqn, :D ekesigvghq http://alxxjvppbzav.info :-* bhmgwqn, :-( jknrkgsbwf [url=http://alxxjvppbzav.ru]mlxailbzti[/ur   April 19th, 2013 8:17 am ET

tttazuxugtew


amazing post qxhsochztu click here O:) ncwldjkbgkjv, >:o dqkomtvvma [url="http://www.npxjfkaxjwls.net"]or here[/url] :/ nlnmjvrfdxvrumm, O:-) sgmkamionx http://npxjfkaxjwls.info   April 20th, 2013 12:48 pm ET

nukzellkmvyi


Emilee Kifer   May 4th, 2013 11:40 am ET

Tal vez no era tan grande. Por otro lado, tocando un tema controversial o dar un รกngulo controversial tienden a traer un montรณn de comentarios


Kjpchduw http://www.nordstages.com/netcursus/index.asp Kjpchduw http://www.nordstages.com/netcursus/index.asp   July 17th, 2013 12:36 am ET

[...] Jftunnlw http://www.siegers.com/images/hermes.php Juevrevt http://www.siegers.com/images/hermes.php Rizeariu http://www.nordstages.com/netcursus/index.asp Mihqxapv http://www.cli-cadarache.fr/home.asp Wsdlehhz http://www.cli-cadarache.fr/home.asp [...]


In home Personal training Long Island   December 6th, 2013 9:30 am ET

You have to love it! Free Market, Sony never saw this purchase coming. That's the beautiful thing about owning a successful business.

On the other hand I'm glad to see that our gov't is saving where ever they can.

Good story


Caitlyn   January 9th, 2014 2:47 pm ET

I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here.
The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter stylish.

nonetheless, you command get got an edginess over
that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more
formerly again since exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this increase.


Kevin   January 17th, 2014 6:32 pm ET

They did it for the cell processor it has. For a console I don't know whySony would put so much power for an entertainment device.


The military is weaponizing video games | Eugene K. Chow   February 17th, 2014 11:42 pm ET

[...] 2009, the Pentagonย purchasedย thousands of PlayStation 3s to bolster its supercomputer clusters. According to Defense Department [...]


Wojsko ''uzbraja'' gry video โ†’ Ja, Rock! | Ja, Rock!   February 18th, 2014 7:24 am ET

[...] 2009 roku dowรณdztwo siล‚ amerykaล„skich w Pentagonie zakupiล‚o 2,300 konsol PS3. Jednak nie miaล‚y one sล‚uลผyฤ‡ zapewnieniu rozrywki tysiฤ…com pracownikรณw Departamentu Obrony. [...]


South Korea Using Xbox to Guard the BorderCapitalism is Freedom   February 19th, 2014 2:00 pm ET

[...] apparently, is what prompted the U.S. Department of Defense toย buy more than 2,000 Sony Playstation 3 consolesย to power a military supercomputer, after it judged that they performed comparably to conventional [...]


シャネル サングラス 花   September 24th, 2014 8:38 am ET

http://www.padders.co.uk/images/sale/designer-watch-sale17856.htmlオメガ時計 クラシック
シャネル サングラス 花


ブライトリング時計 アヴェンジャー   September 28th, 2014 4:47 pm ET

http://www.avanttravel.com/uk/CH/chanel_444.htmlシャネル ムービー
ブライトリング時計 アヴェンジャー


sexdate rijpe vrouwen   January 21st, 2016 3:03 am ET

We like ur site a lot. i think I will visit your blog again!

http://www.rijpe-vrouwen.eu/


Alinarinbrag   January 23rd, 2016 6:06 pm ET

ะ”ะพะฑั€ะพะต ัƒั‚ั€ะพ, ะธะทะฒะธะฝะธั‚ะต ะทะฐ ะฒะพะฟั€ะพั ะพั‚ ะฝะพะฒะธั‡ะบะฐ... ะะฐ ะดะฝัั… ะฒะธะดะตะปะฐ ะฒะธะดะตะพั€ะพะปะธะบ
ะฒ ะบะพั‚ะพั€ะพะผ ะฝะฐั…ะฒะฐะปะธะฒะฐะปะธ power bank ะฑะพะปัŒัˆะพะน ะตะผะบะพัั‚ะธ.
ะ’ะพั‚ ะฒะธะดะตะพ – [media]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KeONGZuiXv8 [/media]

ะšะฐะบะพะฒะพ ะฒะฐัˆะต ะผะฝะตะฝะธะต – ะดะพัั‚ะพะนะฝั‹ะน ัั‚ะพั‚ ะฟะพะฒะตั€ะฑะฐะฝะบ, ะธะปะธ ะปัƒั‡ัˆะต-ะฑั‹ ะฟะพัะผะพั‚ั€ะตั‚ัŒ ะฝะฐ ะบะฐะบัƒัŽ-ั‚ะพ ะดั€ัƒะณัƒัŽ ะผะพะดะตะปัŒ ะฟะพะฒะตั€ะฑะฐะฝะบ?


jessie367   March 17th, 2016 5:31 am ET

kfUxfW https://twitter.com/Healty_Pills


Spam> MK ULTRA PROJECT /// VDEO : The Machine is a Super-Networked-Computer | ฤฐstihbarat ve Analiz   May 1st, 2016 8:48 pm ET

[...] ago in 2009 the military bought thousands of PlayStation 3's to be networked together and used as a super .... The Machine is similar to the same thing. The definition of "residual backlash" was [...]


Once Upon a Time in the Midwest: An Open Letter to Humanity | WebInvestigator.KK.org   June 23rd, 2016 7:36 am ET

[...] game technology has eclipsed that which we thought possible even 20 years ago.ย  Sony sells PS3s to the military. ย Microsoft XBOX controllers are used by the military. ย For this and a [...]


Leave Your Comment


 

CNN welcomes a lively and courteous discussion as long as you follow the Rules of Conduct set forth in our Terms of Service. Comments are not pre-screened before they post. You agree that anything you post may be used, along with your name and profile picture, in accordance with our Privacy Policy and the license you have granted pursuant to our Terms of Service.


subscribe RSS Icon
About this blog

Are you a gadgethead? Do you spend hours a day online? Or are you just curious about how technology impacts your life? In this digital age, it's increasingly important to be fluent, or at least familiar, with the big tech trends. From gadgets to Google, smartphones to social media, this blog will help keep you informed.

subscribe RSS Icon
twitter
Powered by WordPress.com VIP