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February 20, 2010

How to cool the planet

Posted: 08:35 PM ET

Most scientists agree that global warming is real, but disagreement abounds about what to do about it.

The idea of taking carbon out of the atmosphere and storing it so that it can't warm the planet has been pretty widely discussed. Here are some techniques you might not know about; they involve large-scale geoengineering.

Basically, scientists are trying to figure out how to cool the planet by reflecting some of the sunlight back.

One idea is shooting sulfur particles into the stratosphere, which could decrease the temperature of the planet by about 2 degrees Celsius, said experts today at the American Association of the Advancement of Science meeting. Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution says cooling methods like this are a little like chemotherapy for cancer patients - they solve problems, but have their own side effects.

A critic of this proposal, Martin Bunzl of Rutgers University, cautions that this approach could disrupt the monsoon cycle and potentially lead to famines. The dynamics of this on precipitation are also poorly understood, he said. In other words, it's like a doctor telling a patient "here’s something we can try" without knowing how it works.

"There’s a substantial risk of ecological effect," he said. "We don’t really know how long particles we put into the stratosphere remain in the stratosphere."

Another alternative is lightening clouds with sea salt. Philip Rasch of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory says the trade-off here is that you're getting brightening in local regions, whereas the sulfur method brightens the entire globe a little bit.

Right now a lot of what we know about these methods comes from computer modeling. Will they be feasible for the planet? More is yet to be learned.

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Filed under: environment • greenhouse gas


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Chuck Lentine   February 20th, 2010 8:54 pm ET

I guess I'm a little ahead of those scientists. I wrote a Blog on that some time ago and just recently updated. Check it out at http://blogs.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.view&friendID=213084315&blogID=529095220. Anyway if follow GOD'S lead you won't have to worry about the side effects. What I mean by that is volcanos cool the earth all the time via the ashes they put in the air. If use ashes from a volcano, we can use the method GOD gave us and avoid all the concers about side effects.

The BEST WAYS to do things is to do what works. Why reinvent the wheel when we have the perfect plan already. GOD does everything PERFECTLY all we got to do is do it the way GOD does it. Remember, what Christ said, He learnt everything from the FATHER. Why can't we learn from him and follow the FATHER'S example?


Crazy Eddie   February 20th, 2010 11:58 pm ET

This is rough. The other question is how do you know exactly how much to do? We could end up plunging our earth into another ice age, or worse, cause a total snowball effect and make earth like Jupiter's moon, Europa, which is permanently frozen, save for any geothermal activity.

The real solution is to find other ways of getting energy.


Dan   February 21st, 2010 5:28 am ET

A huge mirror or fresnel lens in space (or a LOT of small ones), between the Sun and Earth could do the job... it should be possible with our level of technolgy to design and build something like that.


Crusader   February 21st, 2010 11:22 pm ET

Yeah great now they will try to fix all the crab USA and world industries have created along the years, yet those industries (including goverment policies) are not taking responsability for all the damage they have caused.

thats embarrasing but still they are trying to do something! cool!


Shane McGuire   February 22nd, 2010 6:35 am ET

the way we get the Global Warming Issue under control is through several other prospects which hold more promise.

For one thing the Good Ol USA needs to get its need for using Fossil Fuels under control in the area or generating Electricity. I love the term "Clean Coal". Last I check coal isn't clean when it burns. Hence the death of Steam Locomotives and Coal Fired Factories. To include in this the Power Plants that Burn Bunker Oil, for fuel. That does nothing either.

Power Plants that are operating on Natural Gas, Nuclear Power, Solar, Wind, Hydro-Electric and Geo-Thermal are the answer. Not like the one in Stockton, CA where they burn old tires. I can think of a better use for the old tires. Like improving Asphalt to provide less slip for our vehicles on rainy days.

On the Point of Nuclear Power, Yes we have a Waste Storage Problem at this juncture, but the Fuel Rods can be recycled back into useable materials for the Power Plants. Heck the Europeans are already doing it with technology provided by US Companies such as General Electric. Hmm, why is that Technology not used here? I wonder?

That said, ther Nuclear Power Plants provide a re-newable source of fuel for our cars and trucks. That is Hydrogen Fuel or CHG, (Compressed Hydrogen Gas). Germany has been experimenting with that concept for many years now and BMW has a LeMans race car that actually burns the fuel.

We need to us a balance of all of the above mentioned, but need to be slightly heavy on the Nuclear side until we can get the other systems on line to make a better balance.

Just my opinion, but I'll just bet it will work.

Finally, hey folks I don't mean to sound like an environmentalist, but there is nothing wrong with planting a few more trees in our cities too.


Chip   February 22nd, 2010 9:59 am ET

Wow, who researches this kind of propaganda. "Most scientists agree that global warming is real"...

You open with a sentence like that and it's all over. No credibility at all.


A. Smith, Oregon   February 22nd, 2010 5:02 pm ET

Given the near absolute lack of ethics and morality in the field of science technology, I'm certainly not certain such global climate alterations would not purposefully cause droughts and famine in neighboring country's just to benefit the nefarious efforts of the primary country.

Russia has for years employed weather adjustments, as has America. America's largest 'experiment' was in Viet Nam where there were as many flights to adjust weather were made than standard bombing flights!

I have first hand seen Sulfur emissions change the dense and heavy fog bank in the Northern California area. For nearly a decade that was the most foggy area in the world. TWO pulp and paper mills were added offshore which pumped tons of Sulfur Dioxide into the atmosphere, the fox bank disappeared, the smell of sauerkraut appeared.

This article relates that injecting Sulfur into the stratosphere would cool down the planet. However, I have seen first hand that Sulfur Dioxide pumped into the atmosphere causes regional WARMING.


Jnan R. Saha   February 22nd, 2010 7:43 pm ET

Global Warming has already started. Only serious Scientific Methods can get Mankind away from disaster. Both people who believe in Global Warming, and People who are saying Global Warming is a hoax, are not grasping the real cause. There are two places that absorb CO2 are the Oceans and Rain Forests. Rain Forests are trivial to the capacity of Oceans to absorb CO2. Carbon Dioxide absorbed by the Ocean Water goes to the bottom and Carbon is sequestered for Millions of Years. Where as Carbon Dioxide absorbed by Rain Forests and other Vegetation is only temporary and get recycled after a few years.
In the Ocean Waters there are many different Planktons, which are visible only under Electron Microscope. One kind of Planktons are Phyto-Planktons. These absorb Carbon Oxide and release Oxygen in the Atmosphere. A fraction of these planktons die natural death and go to the bottom of the Ocean with their Carbon Compounds inside them. These are all also at the bottom of food chain. These are consumed by bigger Organisms. First by tiny fish, and those are consumed bigger and bigger fish and to the biggest. At each stage fractions of these organisms die naturally and go to the bottom with the Carbon Compounds in them. At the bottom of the ocean under extreme Aenerobic conditions Carbon is reduced to methane and accumulate as frozen nuggets. In millions of years Methane become higher Polymers to Ethane, Propane and ultimately to Petroleum which is mainly a mixture of those higher hydrocarbons..
There is debate that cutting consumption should halt the Global Warming process. Yes it will temporarily with a consumption cut of 50% or more, which is very unlikely and only at the expense of Economic growth. The Ocean at the stage it was 200 years ago could absorb all the CO2 produced by Human activity. The Ocean has lost its ability to absorb enough CO2 because of pollution. A disaster like Exxon-Valdez can take out Phyto-Planktons from area about million square miles for years. There is an area in the Pacific that has Texas size floating trash and plastics and is growing at a rate of few square miles every day. Please follow the link: http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Ocean/Moore-Trashed-PacificNov03.htm
Unless this is stopped, there will be no hope to combat Global Warming. Please follow the link: http://jnansaha.blogspot.com/
Here I have proposed to compact the trashes and add stones and dump in the Ocean to a depth of 20,000 to 25,000 feet. I propose here that a few ships be constructed with United Nations funding. These ships will scoop up the trash in Pacific Ocean, crush them into pellets with stones and send to the bottom as above. If the Ocean is cleaned up, Phyto-Planktons will bloom and will be able to absorb all the CO2 being generated. There is concern that overfishing will deplete the fish stocks in the Ocean. But if the Phyto-Planktons bloom, no amount fishing can deplete the Marine organisms.


Doug99   February 23rd, 2010 11:01 pm ET

We could just curb pollution. We could stop heating the planet and breathe the air too. What a concept huh?


James1313   February 24th, 2010 2:17 pm ET

Convert the sun's energy into electrical energy via solar panels or focused mirrors (to create steam). This energy conversion lowers the temperature of the planet by the conversion of the solar energy. In addition, you are lessening the creation of greenhouse gases which also cools.

Anyways, I thought it was a well known fact that we are coming out of an ice age. Doesn't that mean that the world is going to heat up? I am sure that the greenhouse gases contribute but I believe that we are also going through a natural heating cycle.


Dave   February 24th, 2010 6:21 pm ET

Use logic here!! If you continually burn fossil fuels the way we are doing and continue to do so then as we know CO2 is a byproduct of fossil fuel combustion and this gas is accumulating faster and faster in our atmosphere and research of the world's climate of the past 100's of millions of years (or pick your own time frame) then you would see that an increase in atmospheric CO2 has a direct correlation to the temperature increase of this planet. If we continue to put this much CO2 into the Earth's atmosphere then at some point in the next few hundred years there is a very strong possibility that there will be a tipping point where Earth will fall into a "Runaway Greenhouse Effect" similar to what is hapening on the planet Venus and life on Earth will be 100.0% terminated.


Dave   February 24th, 2010 6:26 pm ET

To reply to James1313 above, yes we should be near the end of this interglacial period but the Earth is warming up when perhaps it should be cooling down. The Global Warming that we are experiencing now could be delaying the next ice age or we may even prevent the next ice. Also, the first portion of your statement is accurate.


Dave   February 24th, 2010 6:31 pm ET

To Chuck above>>> Now did i miss what God said? Did he give you advice about correcting Global Warming. Actually the 2 are extremely unrelated. I guess you also think that the Earth, planets, and Universe is only 6,000 years old too? You think that you are ahead of scientists because you have an 'in' with God? Quit smoking whatever it is your are smoking, wake up and experience reality. Reality is avery nice place. Please join us.


Home Design   February 25th, 2010 12:56 am ET

I think that we all need to carefully examine the possible collateral effects of such a global effort. Use the most powerful weather modeling computers possible, then run the simulation again, and yet again and have others question the results and do it again, before implementing. Also, run small scale area tests before doing the whole planet. In this article about Global Warming: http://www.homearchitects.com/green-architecture for instance, it identifies water vapor as the #1 greenhouse gas, and CO2 as the only one that humanity contributes to, so let's not jump to conclusions and be careful up there. Furthermore, we may be in a 22,000 year oscillation of the planet that is a natural cycle that we cannot control.


Jason O.   March 4th, 2010 9:58 am ET

Really Chuck? If "GOD" did everything perfectly we wouldn't be in this mess. Its "God fearing" people that notoriously make things worse by quoting the Bible. Keep your judgemental, weird religion out of scientific and political debate.


Jnan R. Saha   March 20th, 2010 9:06 am ET

Another idea to absorb CO2 from the Atmosphere, There are deposits of Billions of tons of Carbonates and Bicarbonates (Sodium Carbonate, Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Magnesium Carbonate and other Carbonates and Bicarbonates) all over the world. These were formed during Ice Ages when Salt Lakes got concentrated by evaporation. First Sodium Chloride (Salt) crystallized out and other metallic salts. When the water got sufficiently concentrated it became Alkaline and at some critical point it started absorbing Carbon Dioxide and depending upon the abundant Metallic Ions Carbonates were Crystallized out. It may be mentioned of all the Metallic Salts only Carbonates come from the Atmosphere. All other Salts, Sulfates, Chlorides, Phosphates etc mostly come from within the composition of Salt Lake Water.
There are some places in the world Carbonates are forming at this time. Such Salt lakes are mainly in the most arid places in the World, Dead Sea of Middle East, Dead Sea of Australia, Dead Sea of Russia, Lake Sambhar in Rajasthan desert, India, Death Valley in California. Until there is rain or run off Carbonates will continue to crystallize. There is proof in Great Salt Lake in Utah, where there is tens of square miles of surface of Calcium Carbonate formed at some extreme draught time. Carbonate crystallization was interrupted by a big rain or runoff. Some time in the future under right conditions some Carbonate will crystallize out again in many Salt Lakes.
My idea is find a Salt Lake where some Carbonates are crystallizing. Pump water from a Salt Pan using Power generated by Wind Mill over a Shallow Plane say at 15 degree angle 10 miles by 5 miles to a levied area 10 miles long and a mile wide. Passing salt water over this large shallow plane has two objectives. Concentrate salt water to become alkaline and increase the surface area for absorption of Carbon Dioxide from atmosphere. Some may ask that it takes Tens of years for an Alkaline Salt Lake to make billions of tons of Carbonate. Yes that is true. But if it is done in 1000 places and each place absorbs enough CO2 to make million tons, there will be billion tons of Carbonates per year. In my opinion it is a sound theoretical proposal, and one has to demonstrate by a small experiment using a portable Electric Generator. Area for the experiment should be in a Salt lake in extremely arid place, using 1000 feet long and 500 feet wide and about 10 feet deep. A conclusion can be made in about a week if this idea will work.


Jnan R. Saha   March 21st, 2010 9:30 am ET

There may be some economic components after successfully crystallizing the Carbonates. Water in Salt Lake is mostly concentrated version of Ocean Water with slight local variations. After removal by Crystallization of Sodium Chloride, Carbonates as Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium etc the remaining Metallic ions get concentrated. These include precious Cadmium, Silver even Gold. At the end of current process these get concentrated 1000 times or more. It could be easy at this point to separate and produce these metals. If it is done that will be Economic bonus. Private Companies may come in at this point and compete to produce these precious metals. This can only be ascertained after a trial run as above and analyzing the contents of concentrates at every step.


Jnan R. Saha   March 28th, 2010 10:23 pm ET

The above post about absorbing CO2 and convert to Carbonate appear to be complicated than really it is. If it works it is the most low tech way to remove Carbon Dioxide from Atmosphere. Only thing one needs is to build one Windmill to supply the power. Just pump Water from Salt Pan, concentrate and pour over an area where Carbonates are Crystallizing. The purpose of this of this effort is to continue the Crystallization process. There are thousands of places in extremely arid regions Carbonates are being made at this time, and billions of tons of Carbon Dioxide can be removed from the Atmosphere.


Jnan R. Saha   April 15th, 2010 12:24 pm ET

The above was posted in News India Times. Yes the Ocean is getting more acidic, the reason it is absorbing Co2 losing capacity to sequester the Carbon. There are tiny Organisms only visible by Electron Microscope, called Planktons. One kind of Plankton is called Phytoplanktons. These absorb Carbon Dioxide from atmosphere and release O2. These are also at the bottom of food chain, being eaten by larger organisms and goes up the chain to biggest Marine Animals.
Fractions of these organisms die naturally and go to the bottom with carbons compounds inside them. Once at the bottom, Carbon in the compounds get reduced to CH4 (Methane) under extreme anaerobic conditions and become frozen nuggets and thus sequestered for millions of years. Because of pollutions plankton numbers are going down and because of loss food chain number of Fish and other big Organisms also going down. The reason is not overfishing, just those fish and other organisms have less to consume.
There was a report last week that a Chinese Vessel ran aground and leaked 963000 tons of oil. Each ton of oil probably kills all the Planktons in one square mile area. Other oil spills like Exxon Valdez, Tory Canyon etc killed Planktons in Million square mile area.
There is report that top layer of Ocean water is deficient in Iron. I do not know if this was caused by Oil Spills and other causes. As I posted before Fertilizing Ocean Water with Iron immediately to bring back the Phytoplanktons. If Phytoplanktons do not bloom, Mankind will experience disasters much greater than Global Warming or Global Cooling


Jnan R. Saha   April 15th, 2010 8:51 pm ET

In order to clean up the Ocean in addition to fertilizing its Water with Iron, the Floating Garbage Patches in the Pacific and Atlantic have to be cleaned up. Those floating patches existed before the Mankind arrived on the planet. There was always a balance existed. Mostly Organic materials in the Floating Debris disintegrated and provided Nutrients to the Marine Organisms.
At the advent of Plastics that Balance was lost and the Floating Trash is increasing by several square miles a day. There are two ways to control these floating Plastics. One I already proposed. Build Ships to scoop up those trash, compact them add stones and send to the bottom of very Deep Ocean.
The other way is to scoop these up crush these to powder form and spread on the Ocean. That powder will disintegrate very quickly. If these proposals are implemented, Planktons will bloom and absorb enough Carbon Dioxide to reverse the Acidity of Ocean Water.


Jnan R. Saha   April 17th, 2010 8:30 am ET

The following is a part of report. This report should convince the people in power that there is very urgent need to clean up and fertilize the Ocean Water to avoid disaster for the Planet.
http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20100416/wl_nm/us_iceland_volcano_climate
OSLO (Reuters) – A thaw of Iceland's ice caps in coming decades caused by climate change may trigger more volcanic eruptions by removing a vast weight and freeing magma from deep below ground, scientists said on Friday.
They said there was no sign that the current eruption from below the Eyjafjallajokull glacier that has paralysed flights over northern Europe was linked to global warming. The glacier is too small and light to affect local geology.
"Our work suggests that eventually there will be either somewhat larger eruptions or more frequent eruptions in Iceland in coming decades," said Freysteinn Sigmundsson, a vulcanologist at the University of Iceland.
"Global warming melts ice and this can influence magmatic systems," he told Reuters. The end of the Ice Age 10,000 years ago coincided with a surge in volcanic activity in Iceland, apparently because huge ice caps thinned and the land rose.
"We believe the reduction of ice has not been important in triggering this latest eruption," he said of Eyjafjallajokull. "The eruption is happening under a relatively small ice cap."
Carolina Pagli, a geophysicist at the University of Leeds in England, said there were risks that climate change could also trigger volcanic eruptions or earthquakes in places such as Mount Erebus in Antarctica, the Aleutian islands of Alaska or Patagonia in South America.


Jnan R. Saha   April 22nd, 2010 9:57 pm ET

Here is the story again. This oil spill will kill Phytoplanktons in thousands of Square mile area of the Ocean. This shows the urgency to clean up the Garbage patches in the Ocean and Fertilize Ocean Water with Iron to Bloom the Phytoplanktons.
http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/04/22/oil.rig.explosion/index.html?hpt=T2


Spencer Shein   April 24th, 2010 1:04 am ET

never stop arguing:)
Spencer Shein


Jnan R. Saha   April 25th, 2010 11:58 am ET

It is the “MARINE BIOLOGY STUPID” that is affected by rising Ocean Acidity. The tiniest organisms Phyto-Planktons are dying, caused by pollutions. These tiny organisms are visible under Electron Microscope only. These are also at the bottom of Food chain, As a result stocks of other Marine animals are going down. Bring back the Planktons that existed about 150 years ago, when Super Volcano Krakatoa spewed more Carbon Dioxide than world uses over ten years. If the Planktons bloom like it was at that time and kept that way mankind can burn any amount of fossil fuel without causing Global Warming or raising the acidity of Ocean.
In order to bloom Phyto Planktons Ocean water should be fertilized with Iron, that is essential for Plankton growth. Iron deficiency probably caused by Oil Spills and other pollutions.
Second, clean Up Texas size floating trash in Pacific Ocean and other patches in the Atlantic and other areas. Floating trashes mostly contain Plastics which take very long time to disintegrate and the size of those patches growing a few square miles every day. This can be done two ways. Build ships that will scoop up those floating trash, compact them and add stones and make sure that goes to the bottom of very deep Ocean. The other way scoop them up crush to powder and spread over the Ocean and these will disintegrate quickly.

Cleaning up the Ocean is the only Plan A to combat rising acidity of Oceans. All other plans,
1. Cutting the use of Fossil Fuels
2. Solar Power
3. Wind Power
4. Biofuels
5. Sending Trash to Bottom of Ocean
6. Making Salt Lakes Alkaline and absorb CO2
7. ETC ETC
All these options are plan B. If the Oceans are not cleaned up, the planet will face more danger than Global Warming or Global Cooling. I can cite one example the “Planet Venus” a few billion years ago it had Atmosphere like that of Earth!!


Jnan R. Saha   April 30th, 2010 8:05 pm ET

Environmentalists are concerned about dangers to Wildlife because of the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Everyone should be concerned about that. But I see absolutely no one is looking at the big picture, danger to the Planet and to Mankind. This spill will kill Planktons in millions of square miles areas of the Ocean. The Planktons are at the bottom of food chain. One kind, Phytoplanktons absorb CO2 and release O2 by Photosynthesis. Because of lack of Phytoplanktons acidity of Ocean is rising. The Environmentalist should go to college and take and study Marine Biology. In that case they will have complete understanding about the causes of Acidity and its impact on the Planet.
I can cite one example the “Planet Venus” a few billion years ago it had Atmosphere like that of Earth!!


Jnan R. Saha   May 3rd, 2010 10:10 pm ET

I am posting this piece again and again. Because I feel that the condition of the Planet Earth is worsening by the day. If actions are not taken now it may be too late. I am SCREEMING!!!

It is the “MARINE BIOLOGY STUPID” that is affected by rising Ocean Acidity. The tiniest organisms Phyto-Planktons are dying, caused by pollutions. These tiny organisms are visible under Electron Microscope only. These are also at the bottom of Food chain, As a result stocks of other Marine animals are going down. Bring back the Planktons that existed about 150 years ago, when Super Volcano Krakatoa spewed more Carbon Dioxide than world uses over ten years. If the Planktons bloom like it was at that time and kept that way mankind can burn any amount of fossil fuel without causing Global Warming or raising the acidity of Ocean.
In order to bloom Phyto Planktons Ocean water should be fertilized with Iron, that is essential for Plankton growth. Iron deficiency probably caused by Oil Spills and other pollutions.
Second, clean Up Texas size floating trash in Pacific Ocean and other patches in the Atlantic and other areas. Floating trashes mostly contain Plastics which take very long time to disintegrate and the size of those patches growing a few square miles every day. This can be done two ways. Build ships that will scoop up those floating trash, compact them and add stones and make sure that goes to the bottom of very deep Ocean. The other way scoop them up crush to powder and spread over the Ocean and these will disintegrate quickly.

Cleaning up the Ocean is the only Plan A to combat rising acidity of Oceans. All other plans,
1. Cutting the use of Fossil Fuels
2. Solar Power
3. Wind Power
4. Biofuels
5. Sending Trash to Bottom of Ocean
6. Making Salt Lakes Alkaline and absorb CO2
7. ETC ETC
All these options are plan B. If the Oceans are not cleaned up, the planet will face more danger than Global Warming or Global Cooling. I can cite one example the “Planet Venus” a few billion years ago it had Atmosphere like that of Earth!!
I just posted this piece. If anyone is interested in discussing the problem, please send me an e-mail. The situation is really very grave for the planet and all living Animals.
Jnan R. Saha
9 Village Green
Wesley Hills. NY 10952
Jgbaby1234@yahoo.com
845-362-2204


Jnan R. Saha   June 8th, 2010 12:10 pm ET

There is reason why I wanted to add Iron to the River just before it emptied in the Ocean not in the open Sea.
1. All the compounds containing Chelating agent go the River after the rain.
2. Water from the River has little lower Specific Gravity than the Ocean Water.
3. The river water with Iron will float on top of Sea Water.
4. Phytoplanktons are mostly on top 3 feet of Ocean Water.
5. Specific amount Iron should be added to the Rivers at every Dawn so that it works on Phytoplanktons all day.


Teychin Tamchai   June 25th, 2010 7:14 am ET

Good Article.

Thanks


Teychin Tamchai   June 25th, 2010 7:15 am ET

How about Carbon Tax???

Teychin


Jnan R. Saha   June 25th, 2010 8:33 am ET

Thank you for your post. A Carbon Tax will raise money. But if it is not put to right use it will not help the Planet. BP is paying 20 billion dollars. What will this do? The money will go to people who lost their incomes. No one is talking about dying Phytoplanktons. An Oil spill in the scale that is occurring in Gulf of Mexico will kill Planktons in a million square miles of the Ocean water. Previous Oil spills killed Planktons in few more million square miles. Plus the floating and growing Garbage Patch in the Pacific, Atlantic and other places are taking away spaces where Planktons can grow. Two more Oil spills in scale that is occurring in the Gulf will kill most of the Planktons in the Ocean. These Planktons are responsible for all life on the Planet. That has been true from the beginning of life on this Planet. Ocean water is becoming acidic because of not enough Phytoplantons to absorb CO2 and release Oxygen by Photosynthesis. The planet can be saved with serious Scientific intervention before the problem becomes irreversible. I will post more of my ideas in the near future.


Directory Organization   July 8th, 2010 3:17 pm ET

Thanks for the post.. Climate Change is a scandal..

Cheers
Directory Organization


Jnan R. Saha   July 18th, 2010 11:02 am ET

There is a quote in Columbia University Magazine Summer 2010 by Neil Tyson, PhD. “I don’t want to be the laughingstock of the Galaxy when they find out that a species that had the intelligence to stop an asteroid impact simply went extinct.”
I fully endorse this statement. The rate at which the acidity of Ocean Water is rising and killing of the Planktons biggest danger is facing the Planet. I have a dire prediction for the planet that if urgent action is not taken to control the acidity all air breathing organisms will die and Evolution will start all over again from simple organisms. I cite Permean extinction when 99% of life went extinct on the planet.


Jnan R. Saha   July 18th, 2010 11:53 am ET

I offer my apology for my similar posts again and again. Because I feel so strongly how the Planet is getting deteriorated so fast. There is a quote in Columbia University Magazine Summer 2010 by Neil Tyson, PhD. “I don’t want to be the laughingstock of the Galaxy when they find out that a species that had the intelligence to stop an asteroid impact simply went extinct.”
I fully endorse this statement. The Dinosaurs went extinct might not be by Asteroid impact alone. My theory is that those Dinosaurs in draught time ate all vegetations in sight. Suppose two 100 ton dinosaurs roaming the size of Island of Manhattan. Those two Dinosaurs and all the lesser size animals would have stripped all vegetations in just one year. This probably happened all over the World and an Asteroid impact aggravated the situation. I am citing the Dinosaur extinctions because there is a parallel between Dinosaurs and Humans. The Dinosaurs did not know anything better. We are not facing an Asteroid impact any time soon.


Jnan R. Saha   August 15th, 2010 6:27 am ET

The following piece is from BP dispersant (US Patent no 4597893) used to control the effect of Oil Spill in Gulf of Mexico and other Oil Spills all over the world. Most constituents listed are Chelating agents. These bind Metal Ions and make these inactive. In addition to these dispersants, Petroleum itself, Coal, Coal Tar, many household items, like Soaps, Shampoos, Medicines, etc have Chelating compounds.
For the growth of Phytoplanktons it needs Iron in very dilute condition. Iron may be removed from Ocean Water by Chelation. Yet large scale Fertilizing Ocean Water with Iron may be imprudent. it is not known what effect on the Climate that could be uncontrollable.
Most of these compounds are washed by rains to the Rivers which in turn empty in the Ocean. Iron should be added to the Coastal Waters in very limited quantities. For example determine the exact amount of Iron needed per day to remove all the Carbon Dioxide produced in the United States. Add this amount of Iron early in the morning that should cover the entire Ocean Coast of the country. While adding Iron to the Coastal Waters everyday it will need constant analysis like change in pH, Plankton counts, measurement of change in composition of Ocean Water etc.

“A dispersant composition suitable for dispersing crude oil or petroleum products floating on the surface of water comprises a combination of a selected non-ionic surfactant and an anionic surfactant in a suitable solvent. The non-ionic surfactant is an ester of a polyalkoxylated sorbitol or sorbitan and a fatty acid. The anionic surfactant is selected from the group comprising calcium sulphonate, magnesium sulphonate, sodium sulphonate, triethanolamine sulphonate and isopropylamine sulphonate. Suitable solvents are C5 to C10 alcohols, glycols and glycol ethers. The dispersant composition is particularly suitable for use in cold, low salinity water.”


Jnan R. Saha   April 4th, 2011 12:34 am ET

I am sending the following piece to Science. I am listing it over here in case some one may take this as his own idea.

"Global Warming is the Indirect Effect of Burning Fossil Fuels

Whether it is Global Cooling or Global Warming, one thing is sure that Acidity of Ocean Waters is rising Worldwide. The effect of rising acidity is that the Phytoplanktons are dying. One report is that 40% of all the Phytoplanktons are already dead. These tiny Marine organisms take up Carbon Dioxide and release Oxygen by Photosynthesis. Some of these die naturally and take the Carbon compounds in them to the bottom of the Ocean and Carbon is sequestered for millions of years. These Planktons are also at the bottom of Food chain, eaten by bigger Planktons, these in turn by small fish, big fish and by the biggest. Each of these organisms also die naturally and take Carbon Compounds in them to the bottom of the Ocean.
Therefore problem is not that we are generating too much Carbon Dioxide but the lack of enough Phytoplanktons to absorb extra Carbon Dioxide. As a result the stocks of other Marine organisms are going down owing to the disappearing bottom of Food Web.
There are reports that there is iron deficiency in the Ocean Waters that are needed to bloom the Planktons.
Hypothesis I: Iron is there in the Ocean Water but deactivated by Chemical process of Chelating.

Sources of Chelating are:
1. Coal products, particularly Coal Tar are full of Aromatic Compounds which are Chelating Agents. Coal Tar is the constituents of Asphalt, Black Top, millions of tons of which are used all over the World to coat roads, parking lots, driveways etc. the constituents leach to the Rivers and then to Oceans.
2. Raw Petroleum contains Aromatic compounds and therefore, many Chelating Agents. Massive Oil Spills in the Ocean release these Chelating agents in the Ocean.
3. Dispersants used after Oil spills are more dangerous than Oil Spill itself. The following piece is from BP dispersant (US Patent no 4597893) used to control the effect of Oil Spill in Gulf of Mexico and other Oil Spills all over the world. Most constituents listed are Chelating agents. These bind Metal Ions and make these inactive
“A dispersant composition suitable for dispersing crude oil or petroleum products floating on the surface of water comprises a combination of a selected non-ionic surfactant and an anionic surfactant in a suitable solvent. The non-ionic surfactant is an ester of a polyalkoxylated sorbitol or sorbitan and a fatty acid. The anionic surfactant is selected from the group comprising calcium sulphonate, magnesium sulphonate, sodium sulphonate, triethanolamine sulphonate and isopropylamine sulphonate. Suitable solvents are C5 to C10 alcohols, glycols and glycol ethers. The dispersant composition is particularly suitable for use in cold, low salinity water.”
4. Most constituents of Plastics, for example Phthalates are Chelating agents. When Plastics degrade release these compound which are released to the Rivers and then to the Ocean.
5. Most Soap, Shampoos and Household cleaners all contain Chelating agents.
6. Most drugs Metabolites included contain chelating agents.
There were fears that by large scale Fertilization of Ocean Waters could lead to Global Cooling and other problems. I propose a limited and controlled addition of Iron in the Coastal Ocean Waters. Calculate the exact amount of Iron needed to bloom Phytoplankton that will absorb and sequester Carbon Dioxide produced per day. This should be added to the Ocean within one mile of the Coast of the entire United States just before Sun rise.

X=Y
X= amount of Iron needed per day Y= Carbon Dioxide produced per day in US, known amount 16 million kilogram.
Experiment:

2.35 liter capacity BBL Anerobic jars were filled with Ocean Water with Iron added starting at 10ng to 2pg per ml Iron. Jars were kept in sun light from Dawn to Sunset and observed accumulation of gases probably Oxygen produced by photosynthesis by Phytoplanktons. At each concentration the accumulation was greater in the jar with Iron than the Jar in which no Iron was added. The experiment is in no way quantitative because of interference with dissolved air. The experiment should be performed in the Ocean with larger apparatus possibly10L or bigger in size with built in cylinder to collect the oxygen produced. Iron concentration to be extended to femto gram and even lower level.
After the X is determined it should be added in solution within one mile of the entire coast of the US. A sample should be taken every 200 miles and measure, Temperature, pH, Plankton Counts and number of hours in sunlight and if possible estimate free and inactive Iron. It is possible the amount of Iron to be adjusted for the above criteria every few hundred miles.

Hypothesis II: If the hypothesis I is correct then other Metallic ions being deactivated by chelating.
Metallic ions for example, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium Arsenic etc are considered toxic above some threshold level. Each of these are essential for some living organisms including Humans at some very low concentrations. After all Life originated in the Ocean and all these elements were present in the system.
Example: Cobalt is present in Vitamin B12. Deficiency of this Vitamin leads to Pernicious Anemia which will lead to Dementia in Humans. Only about 10 grams of Cobalt needed for the entire population of the United States to combat Vitamin B12 deficiency. Amount of Chelating compounds present in plastics and other substances listed above used by one person could deactivate this amount of Cobalt! There may be some metallic element needed for the entire population of US could be in the range of milligrams or even micro grams which are the beyond the sensitivity of current technology of measurements. Or not recognized by Scientists.
If the Hypotheses are correct evidence will pile up very soon with some Aquatic Animals with severe Birth defects and Massive deaths of other Aquatic organisms and ultimately will affect Land Animals including Humans. If urgent action is not taken now to control Acidity the Planet will face the condition that brought the Extinction of life that occurred during Permean era about 200 million years ago. It is thought that during that period more than 90% of life on Earth vanished. Humans cannot escape that fate!
References:
1 http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=34167
2. http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/dukenvironment/f09/assessing-the-pros-and-cons-of-geoengineering-to-fight-climate-change
3. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2008/02/geoengineering/
4. http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/seawater.htm
Jnan R. Saha, M.Sc, MS, MPH
9 Village Green
Wesley Hills"


Jnan R. Saha   April 5th, 2011 9:28 am ET

Planet Earths trouble is due to Ocean acidification only about 10% of which is Global Warming. Easiest part is reversing Ocean Acidification by adding Iron to Coastal Water every day as I outlined in the last post. I believe within one year we see result.
1. Increase in Phytoplankton bloom.
2. Increase in pH (low acidity).
3. Increase in Fish population and other Marine animals
4. No increase in Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere, actually there will be some decrease.
Other countries will follow after it has been proved for United States. I will post more ideas in subsequent posts.


Jnan R. Saha   April 10th, 2011 9:44 am ET

You can burn any amount of Fossil Fuels, Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas if following conditions are met.
1. Add exact amount of Iron daily within one mile of shore of the Ocean that will bloom enough Phytoplanktons to absorb enough Carbon Dioxide produced per day. This I explained in my last posts.
2. Burn Coal 100% along with the Tar produced. Tar also burns and produces heat.
3. Do not spill petroleum in the Ocean.
4. Use substitute for Plastics with something Natural, like Glass or metal Cans.
Contrary to popular belief, the planet will not run out of Petroleum and Natural Gas. All these Organic substances including dead Plankton, Fish and other Marine Organisms go to the bottom of the Ocean with Carbon Compounds in them. Under extreme Anaerobic condition Carbon becomes Methane. Methane is cooked under Ocean by Volcanic eruptions, Polymerize to Petroleum.


Jnan R. Saha   April 11th, 2011 9:52 pm ET

Why I think Iron is there in Ocean Water but become inactive by Chelation
In my previous posts I wrote about the report of Iron deficiency in Ocean Water. Some Companies added Iron in open Ocean to bloom Phytoplanktons that absorbed CO2 by Photosynthesis and release Oxygen to the Atmosphere. These Phytoplanktons absorbed Carbon Dioxide and released Oxygen to support life on the planet for billion years. Why should the Ocean have Iron deficiency now?
About 150 years ago Super Volcano Krakatoa erupted and spewed enough Carbon Dioxide that is produced by Human activity over a few years. Yet there was no Global Warming at that. During any Volcanic eruption it spews dusts of metallic elements and replenish those depleted elements in the Ocean. There were many Volcanic eruptions, particularly one in 1991 spewed thousands of tons of Iron dusts in the Atmosphere and those washed in the Ocean. There is still Iron deficiency. Therefore by some mechanism Iron became inactive. My Hypothesis is by Chelation. I outlined chelating agents in last posts.


Jnan R. Saha   April 18th, 2011 8:32 am ET

The most menacing Environmental problems are Plastics. Whether in Landfill or in Pacific Vortex, Plastics of 10, 20, 50 years ago are beginning to disintegrate. These are releasing their ingredients (Chelating Agents) in the Rivers and Oceans. The tougher the Plastics are, for example Car Bumpers longer they take to disintegrate. As the use of Plastics are increasing exponentially, the danger from them will also grow exponentially.


Jnan R. Saha   February 21st, 2012 10:20 pm ET

I have written the following letter
Dr. Jeffrey Bartholet
c/o Scientific American
75 Varick Street 9th Floor
New York, NY 10013,

Dear Dr. Bartholet:
I read your article “Swept from Africa etc” in the February 2012 Edition of Sciam with interest. When considering Particles that swept to upper Atmosphere and settling to the ground, you should consider Particles coming from Space. There were reports a few years ago that thousands of small icy Comets are coming to Earth from Space. These are very small, a few kilogram sizes and sub kilogram sizes. These Comets were produced probably along with Solar System and contain dusts and solutions of every elements produced at that time. When these Comets strike upper Atmosphere they evaporate and release dusts of Metallic Elements and Gases in the upper Atmosphere. These Particles in time settle on the surface of the Earth.
It is logical that Particles continuously coming from Space and provide Nutrients to Life on Land. Otherwise these Nutrients would have leached to the Ocean over eons by rain and Life on Land would not thrive.
Sincerely,
Jnan R. Saha


In home Personal training Long Island   December 7th, 2013 12:34 pm ET

This kills me. We know whats causing it but we try coming up with ways to deal with it instead of fixing the causes of it. Sometime I wonder how
the human race has made it this far.

Sorry for the dark post but we need a major push to get off gasoline and oil


Jnan R Saha   October 19th, 2015 2:36 pm ET

Global Warming is real and it is agree man made. But it is not due to the burning of fossil fuels as it is believed by most people. if we do quantitative analysis, we see that Human activity is adding very little amount compared the total amount of CO2 present in the atmosphere. There are between 15 to 20 million insects per human on the planet(please consult Entomologists) make more CO2 than all the Humans combined.
The reason CO2 being accumulated is that it is not absorbed enough by the Ocean. CO2 is taken up by Phytoplankton in the sunlight and release O2 by Photosynthesis. All Marine Biologists agree that Phytoplanktons are dying because of the POLUTION.. There is report that there is deficiency of Iron in Sea water that is needed by Planktons. There are some companies that are adding Iron in the Ocean and Charging some Utility Companies for this.

Iron should be added every day starting at dawn and continue all day before Sun set. I propose start adding small quantities of FeSO4,7H2O to the Ocean say 10 pounds in 1% solutrion of the salt every mile going 50 mile form the shore. The Ocean courrent should mix the salt solutrion in trhe top layer of Ocean water. Sample should be analyzed for the number of Planktons, Ph, free Iron concentration. If this is done everyday in one I assumme inone month will know some preliminary results. Then the amount Iron to be added to be adjusted


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