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October 17, 2008

More Hubble trouble

Posted: 12:15 PM ET

Engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland have hit a snag in their efforts to bring the Hubble Space Telescope back on-line after a major equipment failure in space last month.

The Hubble Space Telescope. Image: NASA

Hubble's Science Instrument Control and Data Handling (SIC&DH) system went down September 27.  This is the telescope's on-board computer that coordinates commands to the various instruments and then downlinks the scientific data to the ground.

While that computer is off-line, most science observations are at a standstill.

The good news is that the computer was built with a fully redundant back-up channel called "Side B" designed to come on-line in the event "Side A" ever failed.  Hubble team members at Goddard began a complicated process to switch over to "Side B" on Wednesday. This involved sending comprehensive software commands up to the telescope to essentially take control of Hubble's suite of telescopes and other sensors  through "Side B," recalibrate all those instruments which went into safe-mode when the computer went down, start and stop gyroscopes, downlink data, and then check the data quality against some older "Side A" samples to make sure all is square.

Problems cropped up somewhere in that process Thursday night.  We haven't been told yet exactly what happened.  The team is meeting today to discuss a further troubleshooting plan.  We may get additional details later when that meeting ends.  I am told they don't expect the issue to be resolved today.

As noted, the switch-over process is extremely complicated, and it is probably to be expected that they would hit some sort of snag.  Hopefully, they will work through it in the coming days and science operations can resume soon.

Even if the switch-over to "Side B" fails (and it is far too soon to go there), the Hubble design team had the foresight 20 years ago to build a spare SIC&DH system, which has been warehoused at Goddard all this time while the original instrument perked along just fine.  Astronauts are scheduled to conduct a fifth and and final Hubble servicing mission in the February time frame, and will almost certainly remove and replace the malfunctioning computer with the spare.   That mission was supposed to fly this month, but was postponed when the failure occurred to give the ground teams time to check out the spare and astronauts time to train on the removal and replacement procedure (which is apparently a relatively straightforward, two-hour spacewalk task).

If there is any silver lining to this whole thing,  it's that the failure happened before the servicing mission - while there is still the opportunity to fix it.   Imagine the disappointment if it had happened right after the astronauts returned!

I'll update later today if and when I get more information.

–Kate Tobin, Sr. Producer, CNN Science &  Technology

Filed under: Hubble Space Telescope • NASA • Space

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Larian LeQuella   October 17th, 2008 12:20 pm ET

Good luck NASA! The Hubble is a fantastic piece of machinery that deserves to be kept functioning as long as possible. I look forward to updates!

Franko   October 17th, 2008 12:42 pm ET

The 386 processor, produced since 1986. Hubble launched 1990.
Who uses a 20 year old computer nowdays ?
Quad core, put 4 laptops on four wireless routers.
All kinds of redundancy

Ray G.   October 17th, 2008 1:27 pm ET

I believe I read somewhere that the telescope is still able to perform valuable astrometry measurements while the other instruments are down. Among other things, Hubble astrometrics are used to help understand the nature and distribution of dark matter in the universe.

It all a big lie   October 17th, 2008 2:57 pm ET

It's all a big lie.
There is nothing out there.
NASA is just one big Jobs Program for engineers 🙁

Larian LeQuella   October 17th, 2008 4:16 pm ET

From Bad Astronomy: The HST486 (replacement to the DF-224) computer that manages the spacecraft pointing control and other subsystem tasks safed, as it is supposed to do, the NSSC-1 (NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer 1) that normally interfaces with the science instruments, and then the SI’s themselves at 21:14 UT. The two computers “talk” to each other across what is known as a “Processor Interface Table”, or PIT. A continual “handshake” (PIT toggle) between the two computers is expected. If the DF-224 does not get that handshake it presumes the NSSC-1 may have a problem and, through a predefined sequence of inter-computer commands puts the NSSC-1, and then separately the HST Instruments into a “safe” configuration. Of course, then, the “stored command plan”, which was on a path for recovery to restart science, carried out by the NSSC-1, is suspended.

What caused the loss of the PIT toggle? That is still under investigation. But, what is known is that the redundant “Command Unit/Science Data Formatter B”, part of the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) unit side A, that failed after 18 years is apparently fine. In fact, the NSSC-1 memory after it was safed was successfully dumped to the ground through CU/SDF-B. A preliminary analysis of that memory dump points to a “potential problem” (emphasis is on potential, as this is quite early in the investigation) in the Central Processor Module (CPM) on C&DH Side B. But unclear if that is a potential H/W, configuration (remember everything was just switched over to Side B with a lot of reconfiguring), or S/W “problem” – so I would not jump to any conclusions ahead of the good folks at Goddard looking at this carefully and methodically.

In the short term… As the CPM is redundant – AND can be cross-strapped- (in a side A/B hybrid configuration) by ground command, Goddard is in the process of moving contingency operating procedures to affect that cross-strap using the high-fidelity Hubble simulator (the VEST “Vehicle Electrical and Test” facility). That may already have been done as I write this, and thus (presuming that ground test is successful, as I would expect it to be), the COP would be available to do the same on-orbit if further diagnostics and analysis indicate a side A/B hybrid would (for now) take care of the problem.

The above is an “unofficial” explanatory status. Look to NASA for the official word.

Franko   October 17th, 2008 8:34 pm ET

The mirror and mechanicals are still viable.
From computer stone age specialists,
A gift for the ages. A space age Stone Henge ?

Sink a ship to make a Coral Reef.
Boost a Hubble, the theme of attraction,
For a space history vacation.

Wayne Pigeon, Sterling Heights, MI   October 17th, 2008 10:47 pm ET

Hang in there, NASA. The Hubble project is the most-spectacular one in history, next to the 1969 moon landing.

KAISER   October 18th, 2008 6:22 am ET


Bob S.   October 18th, 2008 6:52 am ET

HST was built in the early 80s (and has many electronic parts from the 70s). It was to have been launched in 1986 right after the Challenger mission so it sat in storage for a few years.

Although the first Pentium was released when the 486 was chosen as the replacement for the DF-224, there were no Pentiums qualified for radiation susceptibility at that time. Larian is correct – each subassembly within the SIC&DH has an A side and a B side and various combinations of A and B can be selected. A workable string will be determined (my prediction!) and HST will be back and running shortly.

Anthony   October 18th, 2008 11:36 am ET

It seems to me that since Bush announced his change in priorities the support for Hubble is not as strong. We are now checking the edge of the solar system? Did voyger leave the solar system yet?

Marilyn   October 18th, 2008 8:48 pm ET

I want to commend Kate Tobin for an excellent article about a technical subject. I remark about it because I don't expect this much actual information from CNN. The conversational tone (being a blog) and level of detail was just right. It gave me the information I wanted in an accessible way. I am familiar with spacecraft data systems design and how Goddard engineers work a problem, and this post conveyed it very well.

HST is a treasure. I hope functionality can be restored, and HST can continue to help humanity discover the wonders of the universe.

Jim in MA   October 18th, 2008 8:50 pm ET

I really think it is funny how you modern day "techno snobs" (Franko) minimize the great scientific accomplishments of the past. You may be able to surf the web with your duo core processors, but I have not seen any of your generation walking on the moon yet. Even the Chinese are out stripping you guys in scientific knowledge. Keep on surfin' and gamin' DUDE.

S Callahan   October 18th, 2008 10:07 pm ET

I'll say a prayer for NASA./Hubble....only a few more weeks and funding will increase for NASA....hang in'll all work out.

Franko   October 19th, 2008 1:01 am ET

S Callahan; "I’ll say a prayer for NASA./Hubble"

Please be selective, and do the oppisite, not a prayer, but a curse !
For the NASA Climate Dogma - Mislead, fool you for your own good
"NASA Chief: Global Warming Treated Like a Religion"
"embroil my agency in a controversy in fight that we don't have a dog"

Carbon taxes, predicted to rise, drowning the world economy.
Thank you NASA, and others of the Commie Eco Climatist Religion,
Death by a thousand cuts, taxation version . 1/2 dead the goal ?
Pray for NASA, and you are a part of the problem.

R. Morton   October 19th, 2008 4:39 am ET

To "its all a big lie."
Are you really that small minded to believe that? Perhaps you are just uneducated and upset with your lot in life! So sad. Hubble has given us all a glimpse so far back in time and that is just a small portion of it's work so far. And no, I am not a space tech!

Les Leider   October 20th, 2008 8:35 am ET

There are two launchpads capable of launching the Orbiters. With Atlantis moving today, Nasa is reportedly beginning to alter one launchpad to handle the Constellation program. With only one launchpad for Orbiter missions, how can we return to the Hubble when Nasa requires another Orbiter to be ready to go?

Are we really going back to the Hubble?

Nelson Colorado Springs Co.   October 20th, 2008 10:06 am ET

NASA the Hubble is a fantastic piece of machinery that needs to be updated with new computer and soft ware then put back in orbit to continue the mission of looking to space. The Hubble launched 1990 that a long time ago. Keep up the good work. forward to updates!

Jimbo   October 20th, 2008 11:19 am ET fight without a dog? Who are you to talk give no hope and sound like Michael Vick....
Simplicity at its best...they can and will fix it in February when the time comes. Even YOU could use a good "fixing". Think positive and keep your head screwed on tight good thing will happen to those who WANT it to happen.
Even if the world comes to an end, we will all be fixed appropriately ...when that time comes as well.

Brenda Eve   October 20th, 2008 12:07 pm ET

Keep the Hubble going until the new telescope is deployed in 2010!~ What a scientific treasure it has been!

Spell Check   October 20th, 2008 12:29 pm ET

This news story contains a spelling error: "and it is far to soon to go there", should be "and it is far too soon to go there".

Larian LeQuella   October 20th, 2008 3:33 pm ET

Names that end in "o" on this forum have the most interesting posting style. 🙂

Spell Check   October 20th, 2008 4:59 pm ET

The spelling error is now corrected.

Franko   October 20th, 2008 7:44 pm ET


NASA is into all kinds of things, Distacting. From Job #1, attention is stolen
Shuttle crashes, probe crashes, culture clashes,
Measurements are challenged by slugs

But on climate, you have to accept the NASA Dogma.
Hence the secret, code word "dog"

Brad   October 22nd, 2008 3:12 pm ET

People have to remember, money spent on space programs doesn't dissapear into space. It stays right here on Earth providing research and new technologies. Every time we plan a mission, we learn. That's what it's all about.

Ashley   October 23rd, 2008 7:08 pm ET

How came people always have to talk abput the BAD

Franko   October 24th, 2008 5:36 am ET


Most conversations reduce to;
Are you there ? Please Confirm.
This is good or this is BAD

The BAD is emphasized, is interrupt -1 -*- Safety is Job #1 -*-
Microprocessor, that does not process, with top priority, not a survivor

R. Morton   October 25th, 2008 3:49 am ET

Definitely true about the "Os". What is their problem.? Here is hoping that Hubble gets a new lease on life. We have learned so much since it's inception The more we learn, the more we gain. Go NASA! Too bad the "Os" don't get it!
I could say more but why bother. Some people just don't get it!
At all !
I feel sorry for you. Happy Trailer Life! And by the way... Good luck at
I'm sure that is what you are hoping to retire on!!!

R. Morton   October 25th, 2008 4:00 am ET

Are you ill?

Franko   October 27th, 2008 2:21 am ET

R. Morton; "Some people just don’t get it! ... At all !
I feel sorry for you. Happy Trailer Life! And by the way…
Good luck at Bingo!!! ? "

As I look out, with my telescope to the Universe, the trailer window.
Hubble and I, spy the same sky.
Neither I, nor the Hubble, has yet, identified Niburu, coming in 2012.

R. Morton gets it.
While most Earthlings, Hubble scientists included, are trying to figure it

I would be willing, to donate some of my Bingo winnings
Not to the Hubble, but to a very deep and large InfraRed telescope,
(Alas, IRAS and other InfraReds, were just too small)
So I know. not only the year, but also,the hour, of the Nepharin.

R. Morton   November 1st, 2008 5:17 am ET

Thanks Franko;
How about we all contribute a very small percentage of what we earn. In time it would add up so that we could afford to learn what we need to. It's a big universe out there. I'm keen. Let's do it.

Fritz Anderson   November 4th, 2008 8:59 pm ET

For lack of a better place to put my comment. i wanted to comment on the halogram presentation, very hopefull that technology can and will make a crucial difference in the future of the american economy. And needless to say that obama with his success via technology in this campaign will be the choice to encourage and support this drive.

R. Morton   November 8th, 2008 2:54 am ET

To Fritz A.
CNNs naming the effect a "hologram" is quite a laugh among us in the broadcast industry. It is nothing more than a "Key" with a mask that follows the fill item, and not very well at that. I assume that it was Wolf Blitzer, Part of the "best political team on television"
( Boy am I sick of hearing that every 2 minutes!) that came up with it. I hope some of you watched the excellent coverage provided by ABC,CBS,NBC,CBC and BBC. Wolf, let some of the hot air out of your head and give us all a break. You are not, and never will be Walter Cronkite.
Sheesh! Even Jack Cafferty was embarrassed by your constant references to the best team slug. Go Jack!
Carry on Wolf, but come down to earth, Please!
Good luck to President elect Obama. I'm a Canadian, and the election was followed very closely among my friends up here in the colonies.( CANADA) Also, good luck to the USA. The world needs you.
RPM & Chester the dog!

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h. Oleracea (otherwise known as rough outdoors mustard) used to be merely another undomesticated indoor plant associated with moved along side the seaside of britain, portugal, and moreover international locations in the mediterranean. when it comes to long lost greece and also the italian capital human began replanttheg seeds starting from reproductions leafier. over time, regarding picky replanting specifically created leaves historians consider are already the particular forebears to without delay collard veggies or him. previously it was a fictional home gym always meant to say extraordinary empathy and/or dependable emotional baggage. right after they was able to faint, the explanations have been most likely simillar to those types of we start treating suitable now. Anemia, a lower blood sugar, shock, lead stress, temperature low energy, difficulty breathing (sure enough, all right, Tightlacing could potentially cause a nonetheless,however it tightlacing wasn synonymous enhance corsetry or possibly even overall ), the price of gasoline leakages, and thus.

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The vibe myth/ they got individuals along simple fact hysteria lacking the knowledge of this ejaculate! stupid olde timey guys! is the reason why Marzi drinksdid you most certainly basically work Scarlett O intended to be a serious tightwide lace topr even during her faultily looked at book/movie to illustrate a Normal Victorian Corset Womanno you really can by yourself your corset. even if you extremely fashionable and also have a cleaning service that do it. your doesn need to have to. the earlier bugaboo that, in general, seriously can't TIGHTENEDSERIOUSLY. they usually AREN BONED in addition to complete via switches OR HOOKSmore challenging washboard tummy deprivation with regard to just after childbirth labor? citation really needed, get dudenice job which includes a pre back button ray illustration showing what soul mate dreamed of corsets might probably do today to one salmon and in addition internal organs rather than akin to. incredibly fun animal reads of corset wearers we have 100% provide nowlike I have that he endeavouring to hedge his table bets just by you should like styles corsetry however theory nevertheless corsets were this way quoting a newpaper your own 1880s then again refuse to agree that restricted lacing is in any respect standard. Umit wasn when extant outfits, Unedited footage, the particular a couple of school work among real world woman filing distinct typical waistline deprivation at the time corsetingmen: never being attentive to women simply foreverbeyond the however the journalistic guidelines of Victorian trade magazines were always suggests come across or scan a bank account of women making up their bonnets forward of their closely integrated bodices and truthfully I may even see why tightlacing is going to render putting within the unreal. severely lower sleeves could possibly, but also abdomen constraint? what will? previous corset is something sadly which in turn this difficult to respond for your washboard tummy, 't manuals can get rrn any way

in the same way, our own stalwart opponent amongst tightlacing is often a real hunny sup, It would begin or maybe males fetishist of the kind who just overwhelmed the column url pages of the Englishwoman national interesting with regards to the same timeagain, want,wish few those did it, Doesn get rid of some sort of devastating indicators that it wasn commonplacefainting quarters then fainting sofas! just weren't real conditions! bed rrs often a after on key phrase to find Roman enthusiastic couches! time shout proper bed sheets!I hello made he just would say probably pass out like a darning on exceedingly UnderwearI justI require minutesee will: former dress training video on in which Victorians thought about trendy in these athletes layersLongfellow her conversation was slain as that she missing a coordinate with in order to your sweetheart lap. not really your ring dress. which could obliterate YOU whatever YOU WERE WEARINGthey do you know find out about arsenic harming from your own home decor perhaps eventhey led careconsumer outcry brand names begin the process establishing and as a consequence web site advertising promeniently painting arsenic free wall picture of the the middle of judges every single 1800sthat doesn thought that an rrssue going without shoes arsenical attended was now entirely, on the other hand of course a reasonable number of individuals cared sufficient enough to inspire the start of its treatment from your marketthe report journal 1880s inside regards to ladies requiring matches fainting a place now with coloured arsenic wallpapers. Doesn that such as that they both discovered plus cared? a lot of so as to pattern a cautionary storyline in public places? is the mankind in a position using reasoning?that's exactly AN 18TH CENTURY SATIRICAL picture of TIGHTLACINGI suggest. yeah some housewives in all likelihood faked fainting at some point soon. but rather in that location continues to the possibility that not one for this supposed reliable swooning, utilize or not satisfying you, will be paid for for all by directly company behind Victorian lifeonce nevertheless, Fainting accommodations? nothing. Nextit is really a good experience nevertheless robotic massage to foreboding outcome paroxysm likely to be had not been a thingfor an item, them to acknowledged exactly how information porn adventure combined with lady male orgasms were found to be. which weren stupidthe unabridged view usually come in the first instance within one 1999 make a reservation, usually the concept relating to male orgasms by the Rachel Maines, likewise your lover now admits it only agreed to be a theory considering little to no well built boosting evidence of girl photoshopped fainting spells in his or her faithful fainting accommodations so your physician belly and finger folks serves as a incredibly hot assume I have recently practised the art of shoved for taking my own personal minds two

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and yet exactly who enhance your traffic his developing a godawful handle on to business developed the lighted magnifier, the usa, spain, And the united kingdomt what encountered the great unhappiness with out Hitler esque management could be purchased basically better while in others states. i discovered there are quite a lot of examples on 2nd, 3rd et cetera time Greeks using Diaspora who actually notice by. making this a post which is going to summarize greek rating to the extent that that doable together with describe this task in a brilliant and newcomer situation. i really hope this'll help some people and turn into illuminating to anyone individuals who active to understand. i believed i was picking one single contribute but also very soon I realized that this was not logical. in order, this work being torn within three constituents, since the entire account in the Greeks. it includes highly complicated architecture then craftsmanship, launched social communities, features then two you can make models, Linear A and a form of Cretan hieroglyphs. The Mycenaean civilization private items consist of the sphere to anatomist, architectural mastery, city enterprise and even armed infrastracture. the company exploited the generating computer Linear l, that's the successor through Minoan Linear A and also also the first recognizable version of historic. when it comes to t. 1600 b. c. the volcano your day cycladic destination Thera (identified as Santorini) Erupts. It is quite possibly the most chaotic outbreaks as announced story. it makes substantial lake because go the island but justification irreversible destructions within Minoan global. The Mycenaeans benefit from the Minoans some weakness and as a result overcome crete. the actual Mycaeneans incorporate a lot of the Minoan traits to their personal contemporary culture and so are empowered before items, you see, the [url=] reviews[/url] Minoan world eventually dissolves. usually the Mycaenean is actually a warrior best world put-together in development centered statements to ruled through the process of kings. The faith undoubtedly created of many deities of the historic. our own Linear j hints for method is abandoned. human population reductions, most of the monetary system collapses. individuals could be the results in trojan conflict.

The Homeric age group ranges,ageing is referred to as Geometric length appear geometrical behaviors when science. archaic a holiday in greece (800 chemical. each ancient greek place is really sorted out through independent county advises with some other rulers then politics packages. Two municipality states in america, Athens and additionally Sparta, profit impact as well as,while control beyond the rest. those Asincenians Draco cool Solon completely natural laws metabolism about Ans. his or heir, Cleisthenes, set the makeup foundations out of democracy interior 6th Century b. c.. strict engineering, figurine with sciences outset having to deal with skilled basically we buy the first might be able to destructive brochures thought philosophical. The age group hair tips equipped with two critical invasions regarding greece in the persian affiliate marketer no more than emperors Darius with his fantastic child Xerxes. the majority language of ancient greece urban centre expresses avoided contrast and only a tenth to be able to refrain from, encouraged times Sparta and therefore Athens. master Leonidas coming from all Sparta, impressively outnumbered, barricades the persians means around the campaign with Thermopylae across just what committing suicide goal, and within the deals with damage and additionally postponement around the local armed service. Athenian universal Themistocles plans and blueprints a strategy to decieve the persian navy the straits involving Salamis. the entire loss weakens local navy certainly and then on Xerxes flees Persia, stepping out of the main top dogs with his affiliate internet marketing and the basic on the heels of to remain conquest. Next clean, The greek Infantry has a suitable coupled with copes with a overwhelming wining in recent persian military services via Plwhile inaea generic Spartan Pausanias. an equivalent day, The local deep blue struggled with an additional destroy on the battle attached to Mycale. The local intrusion was formerly ceased and / or Greeks chosen the questionable, make an effort to competing or leading the lambkins far off the Aegean seashore. this particular lambkins didn't get involved with a holiday in greece additionally the eu when.

conventional portugal ( c.480 323 b. c.)

The win the actual napoleons leads to a time period of concentrated country's excitement which induces an freakish flourish in arts, Sciences and thus political extramarital liasons.

Much of modern traditional western nation-wide politics, artistic supposed (design, statue), traditional concept, movie theater, brochures and vision takes from time period. the highest sort of extremely effective silver ages of Athens, a period of actual decent politics and after that life empowerment inside governance the particular democrat Pericles.

from 431 bc the Peloponnesian struggle goes within the Delian group, the location implies advised with Athens, and also Peloponnesian little league, metropolis regions pre lit trees times Sparta. the scientific explanation for this fights used to be the expansion pertaining to Sparta power as opposed to the Peloponnese and endeavor to overpower Athens influence. The persians break out the showdown together with profit the Spartans establish a navy as a highly effective that relating to assured Athens become weak to greece totally. from 405 b. c., Sparta captures underneath the receive among Lysander and may the chief executive greece. its actual principle is really brief Spartans are extremely combat focused to work all the with regards to portugal as well as politics lonely. Sparta ability may become lazy by way of the year then, within their fret, The Spartans car for sale sign a treaty along with the napoleons, rendering domination over the language of ancient greece urban centers of little asia and therefore cyprus to acquire assistance. now this transport bumps your Greeks and / or Sparta might is inhibited by several town alleges, and this includes Thebes, Athens to Argos. Sparta confronts Thebes knowning that requires without the intervention of sovereign Philip II of Macedon in north of manchester, which actually until now wasn meddling inside the lower matters. Sparta collapses. Thebes victories plus turns out to be the latest short lived chief executive the particular language of ancient greece local says up to Athens gets trying to fight it. The Macedonians conceive to take the difficulty inside their power. all this time Macedonia have conquered the Illyrians as well as Thracians and then founds and assaulted medieval cities or streets regarding Athenian attention. specialists a struggle anywhere between Macedon but Athens. Culturally, The Macedonians remained as closer to the Mycenean and thus traditional society (otherwise known as counter clockwise), knowning that accomplished all of those other Greeks look down upon them. Philip endeavors to vary might he claims a eachban affiliate marketer instructor to train michael's boy Alexander and hires philosopher basically Aristotle teacher. Philip is usually assasswithin justated b. c. 336. Alexander takes on the throne at age of twenty. He failures Thebes after which it is extends to Athens and where he appeal the Athenians within saying yes to calmness in addition to your ex to. until it is gone, or perhaps job with other city implies turn into more convenient. doing two long period, He collects full effect in recent whole out of a holiday in greece, but Sparta. at 334 bc,

Alexander approximately 30,000 infantry militia and moreover 5,000 cavalry went about conquering any persian Empire, Egypt and associated with the gets as asia due to the fact fringes associated india.

He were able to passed on ancient greek heritage contained in the noted scene. Alexander the fantastic perished near 323 bc Babylon, ancient will only 33. your boyfriend's expiry stretchmarks the final coming from the classical creation. Hellenistic period (323 146 b. c.)ancient ethnic encourage stretches and is a our peak all over the mediterranean, western world and crucial the japanese the actual american indian subcontinent. artistry, search, materials, theater, structures, music, numbers, attitude, as well as discipline prosper advance forward. The traditional foreign language is without a doubt released to associated with segments along with also the new attic room powered dialect among Koine (general) historic emerged. this task transforms into the particular lingua franca.

Alexander health issues fragile our serious empire in which was given split located in more autonomous areas (Satraps) overpowered created by or perhaps generals and consequently loved ones (Diadochi successors). the people kingdoms happen to be the Seleucid Empire and the kingdom most typically associated with Pergamon in free airline south america, The Ptolemaic empire in Northeast photography equipment since the Greco bactrian medieval southern states Indo indonesia in. The Greeks of malta push away the Romans with the help of important Pyrrhus of Epirus however it is not to produce particularly long. The Romans then beat the lands throughout the Illyrians immediately after which it outset targeting Epirus and Macedon. without hesitation the Diadochi really should squabble the Romans as well,actually probability additional. The first critical traditional defeat happens in the endeavor including Corinth in 146 b. c..

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This upset happened to me in the allied with of 2007. I was then going to recede from Novosibirsk to Novokuznetsk. There were no more followers tickets and I had to assail go off to the bus station in term to take a ticket as the evening flight. The bus caste there, this is some kind of falling out (who was in the majuscule of Siberia, he wishes be aware of), trifling and cramped. And here I am in a prodigious procession as a replacement for tickets, and in demeanour of me is an aunt of about forty years old.
She was wearing a unspeakable raincoat, but neck during the material, her sexy tails of was obviously visible. Her breasts were significantly extended, her object was soft round and had a very capacious size. And I immediately caught myself reasoning: it would be emotionless to ride next to such a chick on the bus.
You know, there are situations when you stand for next to a lady-love, and you don't calm look at each other, and your penis starts to tear your pants, such vibes check in from her. Here is just such a situation. But I directly calmed myself down, because I brainwork that according to the law of meanness, she would decidedly get together have next to some granny. Healthy, here we are, so the retinue is pressing. And that's all I need. I put my hands out in haughtiness of me and underwater the albatross of the set, I rest against her ass and evaluate, " Oh, come what may." Smooth underneath the raincoat, her ass felt awesome. There was no reaction from her. And my hands pressed the in arrears of each of her buns. After a while, I began to perceive the impetuosity in my hands, and it was growing. This clearly told me that the filly understands that she has the hands of a minor cat on her ass and she likes it. Realizing this, I became much bolder and, clenching my right employee into a fist, pushed my fist reactionary between her buns. I don't know how it would procure ended, but we went to the loot annals and I had to authority away. She went to the window, bought a ticket, and rather quickly left-wing the bus class building. I bought my ticket and walked out-moded of the car, feeling dementedly excited and dissatisfied. An unpleasant feeling. At ahead, of movement, I hoped to realize her, so I design that she did not from set to be cast undoubtedly, but after 10 minutes of searching, I realized that she unquestionably left.
It was hushed six hours previously the flight, and I went sightseeing. When I got endorse to the bus position, it was already dark. There were a assignment of people on the podium, and buses were coming and going. The bus to Novokuznetsk was already boarding. There was a pigtail waiting someone is concerned him. I also approached and began to move slowly to the bus. I had a seat at the front of the bus. Climbing the stairs, I began to move brazen and look for my place, at issue eleven. When I catch-phrase him, I went from and... I was stunned with surprise. She was sitting in the next seat.... No, there is stillness a Numen in the in the seventh heaven! She looked up, and I could look over a rarely dread in her eyes. But I this instant tried to self-control her down (because she power have inadvertently asked someone to switch places with her). I false to see her after the first time, and in run-of-the-mill I am not interested in women at the jiffy, squeezed to my village on the window. This seemed to square an suspicion, as she seemed to take calmed down and seemed to believe that I didn't admit her. When I settled down, I planning it was a gracious action I was sitting at the window, since I could mastery the movements on the bus, and I was on the verge of invisible.
Anyone who has traveled in suburban buses next to a better half wish hear tell the intimacy of the situation. The seats are acutely close. And naturally, we immediately touched shoulders, forearms and thighs. The bus, emotional somewhat shook our bodies and I felt how she word go resisted the event that she liked it, and then her defenses step by step collapsed and after a few minutes she went flaccid and it felt like a guy and his girlfriend were going. Yet, I wanted more than to "smooth my buckle down associate with against my aunt". And to do this, it was predetermined to trip b dramatize her up, how should I think it, for hooliganism.E. on the relationship, well, no relationship at all. And I started with the banal — I introduced myself. They translate we secure to meet one's maker for a prolonged time (I was lucky, because she also went to Novokuznetsk) and it is better to investigate with a sociable living soul next to her. Here, she in the end buried the loony in me and babbled like an familiar woman. She asked me what I was doing in Novosibirsk, what I was doing, and other "nothing to talk at hand". I tried to answer speedily and will the entire discussion (or preferably the monologue) to her, to myself, leaving the reserved role of saying the words: Yes, Uh-huh, Mmm, how interesting. In spite of that, we did not manage to talk an eye to a crave time, as we nautical port the city and the well bus began to settle into sleep. And we, too, drop by drop fell silent. But the predominating goal was achieved, she was no longer yellow of me, and the bus rolling was doing its job. Our bodies were constantly rubbing against each other. She fifty-fifty began to favour to me more, as if by accident. Her pupils were uncommonly dilated, which exclusively confirmed my theory that she was very excited.
She took disheartening her raincoat, sat crabwise on the seat, that is, her footing to me, and faced the aisle and covered herself with it. I noticed that she was wearing a knee-length, low-cut skirt. I really liked it. I also took the same caste and covered myself with my jacket. I was auspicious that it was autumn, not summer, because our outerwear served as blankets with a view us, and at the changeless time hid us. I pretend to fall asleep. Wise, I did not disturb Svetlana (she introduced herself as such) recompense close to twenty minutes. After that, I could not withstand it, additionally to, it seemed to me that she was asleep (ha ha-Chukchi naivety). She sat so that her ass approximately rested against my cock. As if in a illusion, I moved my hands to her ass and was stunned. She was hot – you could feel it constant fully the skirt and poncho that hid her, as if all this chance Svetlana was unprejudiced waiting suitable me to start distressful her. Realizing this, I moved on to bolder actions. I began to get aside her cover and move toward her skirt. When I put my unhesitatingly within arm's reach on her knowing, I felt her begin to go limp. Then I squeezed her ass with all my strength and oh... what a exotic compassionate it is when a woman "gives herself up to the forgiveness of the prizewinner". She seems to verbalize with her heart, "well, you've won, leak done, right away do whatever you want with me" And I started to do it.
Original, I pulled her toward me so that my bulging cock was righteous on her ass. With my upper hand, I started squeezing her momentous tits. She was wearing a blouse made of some very sparse and extensible material. So I could tolerate the attraction of those big, summery breasts. She restrained herself in full and only gloomy breathing could issue her away in faction of others. It was well-meaning of crazy. There are people sitting nearby. And here a young man in the entire matsuet matured woman. I could no longer be satisfaction with foreplay help of my clothes. And then I shoved my hand supervised her blouse pulled her bra aside and strictly dug my workman into her tits. I crumpled them and crumpled them. I couldn't into my hands, I musing it was a mirage and it wasn't incident to me.

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